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OT HEo\R. 

ll"ordslcortlt's Ecclesiastical Sonnets.-THE REFOR

A 2 





THE following Questions have been prepared, 
in the hope that they may supply a ,vant ,vhich 
the Author know.s to have been felt in Schools, 
nan1ely, that of a ,vork illustrating the Thirty-nine 
Articles of the Church of England, sufficiently 
brief, and yet at the san1e tin1e sufficiently 
comprehensive. In arranging the Questions, his 
object has been, as far as possible, to exercise 
the understanding rather than the memory; 
and a certain amount of knowledge in the Pupil 
is presupposed; on this account several of the 
Questions have not any answers subjoined. He has 
also left it to the Catechist to add son1e questions 
here and there, in order to fill up the outline 
of proof. The Latin version of the Articles is 
given ,,
ith the English, on account of the light 
which the forn1er often casts upon the nleaning 
of the latter; nor has the Author scrupled 
A 3 


occasionally to illustrate the quotations from 
the Ne\v Testanlent by a reference to the original 
Greek; but these referenccs are so introduccd 
as not (it is hoped) to preclude the Book fronl 
the use of English studcnts, or froIll adnlÏssion 
into Schools \vhere English only is taught. 

The Author conlnlends to the Divine Bless- 
ing this hUlllble service. His labour \vill be 
anlply repaid, if llc shall be found to have suc- 
cecded in presenting the doctrines of the Church 
of England in a fornl at once instructivo and 
attractive to her 
Touthful lllcmbers. 

Abbeall [louse, Shreu:sbw'y, 
Xorember, 1844. 



IN tho present Edition of this Volume a few 
alterations and additions have been 11lade. But 
\vhereyer these occur, the passages have been 
enclosed in brackets, to avoid inconyenience in the 
use of this \vith the fortner inlpressions. 

Little .J..1Iissenden Vicarage, Amerslw11l, 
February, 1849. 


Ix the reign of Henry ''''III., as the doctrines of 
the Refonnation ad\Tanced, various Fornlularies of 
Faith w'ere drawn up, of \vhich the first appeared 
in 1536. This Fonnulary \\Tas set forth by Convo- 
cation, and \vith the Royal ..L\uthority, under the 
title of " Articles devised by the I\:inge's Highnes' 

Iajestie to stablyshe Christian quietnes, &c." It 
is supposed that 1.11 elancthon had a voice in these 
Articles; and, at all events, the definition of 
justification contained in one of them, is a trans- 
lation fronl his" Loci Theologici." 
In t he 
"'ear 1538, a conference took place be- 
Ì\yeen SOlne Lutheran Theologians and the Eng- 
lish Divines, at \"hich they dre\v up a statelnent 
of the principal Articles of Faitll, with regard to 
\vhich there was a very general unanin1ity. In 
drawing up this staten18nt, they used the forn1ulary 
published in 1336, and the Augsburg Confession; 
and the docuillent so prepared is still extant. 
This appears to have been the channel through 
,vhidl the ..L\..ugsburg Confession found its way into 
our Articles, becaube it is knO\Vll that the docu- 


lneut above referred to ,vas used in the dra,ving 
up of our Articlús, and becau
e no other pa

out of the Augsburg Confession appear in the 
Articles, but ,yha are found in that docnn1ellt. 
No further progress \yas nlade towards the es- 
tablishnlent of doctrine till near the end of the 
reign of Edward VI., ,vhen in 1551, Archbishop 
Crannler received an order from the I
ing to frame 
a book of Articles on Religion, which he drc\v up 
and subnlÌtted to the other Bishops. These Arti- 
cles ,yere 4
 in nlunber, and \rere publishcd by 
ROJ?al Authority. 
Upon the accession of 
IarJ, these Articles 
\yere of course repealed. But in the fourth year 
of the reign of Elizabeth (1562), they ,vere again 
brought forward, and the care of thenl given to 
Archbishop ::\Iatthe\v Parker, ,vho having revised 
thenl (by a reference, it is believed, to a docunlellt 
conlposed in 1551, and caned the Confession of 
"\Virteluberg) and reduced then1 to 38, brought 
then1 into the IT pper IIouse, ",'here 'with a few 
alterations they ,yere received. They \",ere then 
sent to the Lo\\?er IIouse, and subscribed by. ë:tll 
the Clergy. .At a subsequent revie\v in 1:571, the 
29th Article, \vhich had been omitted, ,vas again 
added, a.nd the Articles, 110W' 39 in nunIber, were 
authorized by Act of Parlialuent. 
The Articles of 1562 ,yere dra\vn up in Latin 
only; but in 1571 they ,yere subscribed by the 


ll1enlbers of the tw'o Houses of Convocation, both 
in Latin and in English; and therefore the Latin 
and English ,..... ersiol1s are to be consi dered as 
equal1y authentic. The English Version was 
prepared by Bishop Jewell. 
It has Leen stated that the Articles, as originally 
drawn up in 1552, \vere 42 in nunlber. Those 
,yhich \vere subsequently suppressed \vere as fol- 
lows :- 
The 39th.-That the resurrection is not already 
past; but at the last day Inen shall rise \yith the 
same bodies they now }1ave. 
The 40th.-That departed souls do not die, nor 
sleep \vith their bodies and continue \vithout sense 
till the last day. 
The 41st.-That the fable of the l\Iillenaries is 
contrary to Scripture, and a Jewish dotage. 
The 42nd cOl1denUled those who believed that 
the damned after sonle tilne of suffering shall be 
The Thirty-nine Articles \vere once nlore so- 
IClnnly confirnled and subscribed by Convocation 
in the reign of J anles 1., 160:3; and suLscription 
to them required fronl every person to be or- 
dained, in the following \vords :- 
"That he allo\veth the Book of Articles of 
Religion, agreed upon by the Archbishops and 
Bishops of both Provinces, and the \vhole Clergy, 
in the Convocation holden at London, in the year 


of our Lord Gotl1562 ; and that he ackno\vledgcth 
all and cyery the Articles therein contained, being 
in nunlber nine-and-thirty, besides the Ratifica- 
tion, to be agreeable to the 1V ord of God." 
These ..Articl
s have now. for nearly 'three cen- 
turies exhibited the faith of the Anglican Church. 
..L-\ccurate in stating truth, finn in opposing error, 
cautious on abstruse points, and Scriptural through- 
out, they ha vc becn a bond of union anlÎdst all 
the varying extrayagances of doctrine and disci- 
pline, \yhich fronl tinle to tilne have threatened to 
divide the Church. They are a rich inheritance, 
the value of \yhich they can best appreciate, \vho 
kno\v ho\v dearly it \\
as purchased, and \vhat 
blessings it has conferred. N or can \ye bettcr 
either honour the 11lenlory of those saintly and 
judicious n1cn who have bcqueathed it to us, 
or glorify IIinl \vhose servants they ,yere, than by 
defending it ,vhilst ,ve live, and transmitting it, if 
possible, unimpaired to our successors. 



'fhe Christian Doctrine with reference to the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 


l'he 11.ule of Faith ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 


Doctrincs relating to Christians as IlldividUtlls.. . . . . .. . . . . 

'.1 - 


Doctrines relating to Christial1'3 as Members of a SocietJ 71 





Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 
THERE is but one living and true God, everlasting, 
without body, parts, or passions; of infinite power, 
wisdom, and goodness; the l\1aker and Preserver of all 
things, both visible and invisible. And in unity of this 
Godhead there be three Persons, of one substance, 
power, and eternity; the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost. 
De fide in Sacrosanctam Trinitatem. 
Dnus est vivus et verus Deus, æternus, incorporeus, 
impartibilis, impassibiJis; immensæ potentiæ, sapientiæ, 
ac bonitatis, Creator et Conservator omnium, turn visi- 
bilium, tum invisibilium. Et in unitate hujus Divinæ 
naturæ tres sunt Personæ, ejusdenl essentiæ, potentiæ, 
ac æternitatis, Pater, Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus. 

'Vhat does the first Article assert I? 'Vhat is the 
foundation of all religion 2 1 Ho\v does the unseen 

1 The existence and unity of God, his positive and negative 
attributes, and the doctrine of the 'frinity. 
2 Faith in God. (Heb. xi. fi.) 




God lllanifcst his eternal power and Godhead? 
(Ron1. i. iO.) 'Vhat is the state of those who ,viII 
not ackno,vledge God in his ,vorks? (Rom. i. 20.) 
 a savage sa"r a "Tatch, and observed its 
movenlents, \vhat ,vould he conclude I? Could he 
suppose that it c
une by chance? Do 've see the 
evidences of desig11- in the ,yorks of creation? . For 
exaulple, is nlall suited to be an inhabitant of the 
earth? Is the earth, &c. adapted to man? Is the 
eye fonned for the reception of light? The ear 
for that of sound? Ho,v is this arglunent ex- 
presseù by the Psahnist ? (Psahll xciv. 9.) Have all 
nations ackno,,
ledged a Suprelne Being in SODle 
fornl or other? 'Vhat do you infer froln this 2 ? 
,Vhat is conscience 3? IIo,v does the possession of 
this faculty affect us in reference to our Creator i ? 
'''11at do you nlcan by being :...e
ponsible ? If we 
are responsible, ,vhat do ,ye require:;? 'Vhat is the 
!Jcculiar evidence derived fronl conscience as to the 
nature of God 6? 
,Vhat tw'o distinct evidences arc derived fronl 
revelation as to the existence of God 7 ? 1Vhat is 
a nliraclc? 1Vhat evidence brought Kicodenlus 
to Christ? (John iii 2.) 1Vhat po,ver does our 
Lord assign to his o\vn nliracles ? (John v. 36.) 

1 That they were designed. 
2 1'he probability of some original revelation. 
3 That within us which shows us right from wrong. 
4 It makes us responsible to Him. 5 A conscience. 
6 It teaches us that God is a moral Governor, who wiH call us to 
account hereafter for our actions. 
7 :l\1iracles and Prophec



Sho,v that a sin1Ïlar pow"cr is given to l)rophecy. 
(John v. 46.) 
Unity of God.- IIo\v is ::\Ioses directed to de- 
clare the unity of God? (Deut. vi. 4.) 
Living and true.-Ho,v is God described by 
J erelniah ? (J cr. x.I 0.) 'Vhat instructions are given 
to the captive J e,ys in that chapter? Why, par- 
ticularly, is God there described as "living and 
true 1 1" From ,,
hat does St. Paul ren1Ìnd the 
Thessalonian COl1yerts that they had turned? 
(1 Thess. i. 9.) For ,,
hat purpose? 
Everlasting.- Who existed before the creation 
of the heavens and the earth 1 "\Vhat do you 
mean by existing? Did God ahvays exist? 'Vill 
God always exist 1 Ho,v is thjs truth asserted 
by l\Ioses 1 (Psalnl xc. 2.) How. does God de- 
scribe his o,vn eternity 1 (Rey. i. So) 
1r ithout body, parts, or passions.- What arc 
Ineant by negative attributes 2? Can any thing 
nlaterial be said to be perfect? Is God a pelfect 
bcing? "\Vhat do you infer 3 ? IIow. is God 
de:5cribed in John iv. 24 1 How is the nature of a 
Spirit eXplained by our Lord 1 (Luke xxiv. 39.) 
What do you nlean ,vhen you say that God is 
,vithout parts. 1 What 'vas the error of Sabellius 5 ? 

1 In opposition to the false and inanimate gods of the 
2 Those which describe God by stating what He is not. 
3 That God is a Spiritual Being. 
· The Latin word is impartibilis, " incapable of being divided." 
One of the earliest heretics asserted that a part of the Divine 
nature rested on Christ. 
5 He denied the distinction of persons in the Trinity. 
B 2 



1Vhat is the declaration of the Athanasian Creed on 
this point I 1 'Yhat is the literal meaning of the 
,vord passion 2 ? What do ,ve observe in the 
arrangelnent of the natural ,vorld 3 ? "\Vhat may 
we infer froln this.? How. is this negative attribute 
expressed by Balnaln? (N uluL. xxiii. ] 9.) "\Vhat 
w-as the argunlent used by Paul and Barnabas to 
dissuade the people of Lystra fronl "Torshipping 
them? (Acts xiv. 14, 15.) Does the Scripture 
ever speak of God as affected with passions 1 
How is lIe described in the second Conlnlandnlel1t 1 
Is God ever described as possessed of a body 5 ? 
What do you understand by these expressions 6 1 
For exanlple: 'Vhat divine attribute is expressed 
in Proverbs xv. 3 ? 
Of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness.- "\Vhat 
arc positive attriblltes 7? "\Vhat is the lneaning of 
the ,yord "infinite 1" Can God do ,vhat is con- 
trary to his o,vn perfections 1 For instance; can 
God lie, or deny Hilnself? Can God forgive 

1 "Neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the sub- 
stance. " 
2 Suffering. But because violent emotions of the mind cause 
suffering, therefore passionf: are taken to represent the feelings 
which cause these emotionf't, such as anger, fear, love, jOJ, &c. In 
the Latin version the expression, " without passions," is rendered 
by impassibilis. 
3 Order and regularity. 
· That the Creator is not affected by any violent passions. 
5 The face, the eyes, the hands, &c. of God, are spoken of. 
6 They al'e employed in condescension to our feeble concep- 
tions, and to show us that, if God had our feelings, He would be 
so affected. 
7 Those which describe God by what He is. 



inlpenitent sinners? 1Vere God to do so, ,vhat 
attribute ,vould He violate 1 ? Ho,,- then ,vould 
you express the p01./}er of God 2 ? Ho,v does the 
Psalnlist describe the power of God? (Ps. cxv. 3.) 
And our Lord? (l\Iatt. xix. 26.) 1Vhat is Dleant 
by 1.visdom 3? Ho,v is this attribute expressed in 
the Psalms? (Psalnl cxlvii. 5.) And by St. Paul? 
(1 Tin1. Î. 17.) To ,yhat source may all the evil 
that is in the world be traced? 1Vhence does all 
the good proceed? (Jalnes i. Ii.) Which prepon- 
derates? 1Vhat nla)"" ,ve infer? Ho,y is this at- 
tribute expressed by the Psalnlist? (Psalnl Iii. 1 ; 
cxlv. 9.) What is the most renlarkable proof of 
the goodness of God to nlan'? 1Vhat feeling of 
the n1Înd is the goodness of God intended to call 
into exercise 5? Ho,y is this expressed by David? 
(Psahn lxxiii. 2

[al:er and preserver of all things, both visible 
and invisible.-Repeat Genesis i. 1. Ho,v is this 
expressed by St. Paul? (Co!. i. 16.) When God 
had created things, did lIe leaye thmn to them- 
selves? "\Vhat ,vould haye happened had He 
done so? What truths are you taught by the 
fact that God is the preserver of all things 6 ? 
Ho,v ih the continued agency of God declared by 

1 His justice. . 
2 God is infinite in his power of performing whatever is not 
contrary to the perfections of his nature. 
3 The knolcledge of things, together with the skill to apply it. 
4 The redemption of m.allkilld by Jesus Christ. 
:I Love. Love to God as the most excellent Being, and the 
most to be desired by man. 
6 The continued agency, and the universal providence of God. 
B 3 



our Sj,viour? (J ohn v. 1 7.) And by St. Paul? 
(Acts xxvi. 22 1.) 
The doctrine of the Trinity.- What is the doc- 
trine of the Trinity in Unity 2 ? 'Vas sonle idea 
of this doctrine entertained by any of the heathen 
philosophers 3 ? From ,vhence probably did they 
derive thcir notions on this subject 4 ? 'Vhat do 
you infer fron1 this? 
In Genesis i. 26, God says, "Let us lnake nlan." 
I-Io,v far does this passage convey us to,vards a 
proof of the doctrine 5 ? Ho,v In any Persons are 
spoken of in 2 Sanlucl xxiii. 2? 'Vho is Incant 
by the 'V ord ? IIo,v n1any Persons are spoken of 
in the account of our Sayiour's baptisnl? ()latt. 
iii. 16, 17.) "Those ,vas the voice froln heaven? 
Who ,vent up out of the ,vater? 'Vho appeared 
descending like a dove? Are the three Persons 
represented as perfornling different actions 6? On 
what festival of the Church i8 this paBsage ap- 
pointed to be read 7 ? 
In ,vhose.N alno ,vere the Apostles instructed to 
baptize? "\Vhat do you nlean by baptizing in the 

1 For further proof, see Heb. i. 3. Acts xvii. 28. Ps. cxlvii. 9. 
:Mntt. x. 2!J, 30. 
2 There is one God, the eternal, infinite, almighty. But in the 
unity of this GOllhead there are three Persons, the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost; each of these is God, and yet there is 
but one God. 
3 Plato, Parmenides, and others, held the doctrine of three 
Divine natures. 
· From those who had heard or read the Scriptures. 
å It proves that there are more persuns tlmn one. 
6 God the Father is speaking, God the SOIl is ascending, and 
God the Holy Ghost is descending. 
7 On Trinity Srnday. 



nan1e of anyone I? In whon1 then ,vere thf' converts 
to Christianity required to believe? Repeat the 
apostolic benediction. (2 Cor. xiii. 14.) In whose 
N anle ,vas St. John directed to ,yritc to the seven 
Churches? (Rev. i. 
, 5.) Ho,v is God the Father 
described? God the Son? 'Vho do you 11lean by the 
seven Spirits 2 ? 'Vhy do you certainly infer that the 
seven Spirits mean the third Person of the blessed 
Trinity!? Why is the HolJT Spirit so represented 
In ,vhat order are the three Persons mentioned 
in 1\Iatt. xxviii. 19? Is this order different in 
2 Cor. xiii. 14? "\Vha t is the order in Rev. i. 
4, 5? 'Vhat do you infer from this 5 ? 
Was this doctrine the general belief of the early 
Church 6 ? 'Vhat is the testinlony of Justin l\Iartyr 
to this doctrine '1 ? [Of Tertullian 8 1] And of St. 
Augustine 9 ? 

1 Engaging to faith in that person, and obedience to him. 
2 The Holy Spirit, the third Person of the blessed Trinity. 
3 Because no created being could give grace and peace. 

 To show the variety of his gifts and operations. 
:I An equality of persons, it heing indifferent in what order they 
are mentioned. 
6 It was universally be1ieved in the apostolic times, and those 
were considered infidels who denied it. 
'1 JUSTIN l\IARTYR.-[" But tl1Ís same God (i. e. the Father) 
and the Son tlutt proceedeth from him, and the HolJ Ghost, we 
worship and adore with a rational and true wor
hip." (A pol. 1.)] 
8 'fRRTULLI.\N.-[" The Son is in his own right God Almighty, 
as He is the \Vord of Almighty God. (Tat. adT. Pra:c. c. 17.)] 
E.-" Plainly therefore, and without all doubt 
it is to be believed, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are one 
Almighty God, eternal, unchangeable; and ever)' one of these is 
God, and all of them but one God." (Aug. de tempore, Serm. 38.) 

B 4 



Of the 1Vord, or Son of God, which was made very Alan. 
:J The Son, which is the 'V ord of the Father, begotten 
frorn everlasting of the Father, the very and eternal 
f. God, and of one substance with the Father,'took l\lan's 
nature in the womb of the blessed Yïrgill, of her 

 J:) substance: 1 so that two whole and perf
ct natures, 
-, that is to ;ay, the Godhead and l\Ianhood, were joined 
together in one Person, never to be divided, whereof 
#: is one Christ, very God, and very l\Ian,} who truly 

 suffered, was crucified, dead and buried, ,to reconcile 
his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for 
.. original guilt, but also for all actual sins of BIen. 
De Verbo, sive Filio Dei, qui verus homo factus est. 
Filius, qui est Verbum Patris, ab æterno a Patre 
genitus, vents ct æternus Deus, ac Patri consubstan- 
tialis, in utero beatæ Virginis, ex -iIIl us subsiântiâ, 
- naturanl humanam assumpsit; ita ut duæ naturæ, 
divina et humana, integre atque perfecte in unitate 
personæ fuerint inseparabiliter conjunctæ, ex quibus est 
unus Christus, vents Deus, et verus homo, qui vere 
passus est, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus, ut Patrern 
nobis reconciliaret, essetque hostia, non tantum pro 
culpa originis,_ verUlll etiam pro omnibus actualibus 
hominuln peccatis. 
What does the second Article assert I? Fronl 
,vhat passage is the expression "The 'V ord of the 
Father" derived ? (John i. 1.) Ho\v do you kno,y 
that the 'V ord there spoken of Ineans the Son of 
God ? (John i. 14.) I-Io,v does a 111an make 
kno",.n his ,viII 2 ? And how. does God reveal his 
,vill? (Heb. i. 1.) There are three kinds of son- 

1 The Divinity of Christ, his Incarnation, and Atonement. 
2 By word of mouth. 



ship; in w"hich sense is Christ the Son of God? 
I10w. is Christ therefore described? (Heb. i. 5.) 
1Vhy is Christ declared to be "bcgotten fronl ever- 
lasting 1 ?" 'Vhat passage declarcs that Christ is 
of one substance with the Father? (John x. 30.) 
Christ's divine nature ""as of the sanle substance 
,vitlt the Father; of ,vhat substance 'vas his hUlnan 
nature 2? 'Vhen ,vere the hvo natures thus joined 
together? What ,vas Christ. before his incarnation? 
1Vhat diel He beconle after,vards? 'Yill Christ 
always renlain God and Dlan? For ,vhat purpose 
did Christ suffer and die 3 ? 1Yhat do you nlean 
bv reconciliation j? Ho,v did Christ reconcile his 
Father to us 5 ? 
The Divinity of Ohrist.-Repeat John i. 1. 
1Vhat does t11e expression" In the beginning "Tas 
the 'Vord" denote 6? 1Vhat is nleallt by the ex- 
pression "The 1V ord was 1..uith God 7 ? " Before 
,,,,hose judgnlcnt seat does St. Paul declare ,ve 
shall stand? (Ron). xiv. ] 0.) 1Vhat proof does he 
give? (RoDl. xiy. 11.) "\Vhat do you infer from 
this 8 ? "\Vhat grace does St. Pa uI exhort the 
Philippians to cultivate in Phil. ii. 5-9 9 ? After 

1 He is begotten, otherwise He would not be a Son, and from 
everlasting, otherwise He would not be God. 
2 Of the substance of the Virgin 
3 To reconcile his Father to mankind. 
" Restoration to f
;) By making Himself a sacrifice for sin. 
6 That Christ is eternal. 
7 [This expression points out" the \V ord" as a distinct Person, 
just as the expression" the \V ord was God" points Him out as of 
one substance 'ltitlt God.] 
8 That Christ is God. 9 Humility. 
B 5 



,vhose cxalnp1e 1 How. did Christ D1anifest his 
hun1Ïlity? (Phil. ii. 6-8.) 'Vhat do you D1ean 
by the expression "the form of God 1 
" 'Vhy 
do you conclud{! this 2 
 IIo,v did fIe 111ake IIinl- 
self of no reputation 31 Repeat 1 John v. 20. 
Against what sin does St. John caution Chri;:;tians 
in the follo,ving verse? 'Vho does he say is COlne ? 
'Vhat has the Son of God given to Christians.? 
How. 111ay Christians be said to be unùer the 
protection of God 5 ? "'''110 then is declared to be 
the "true God and eternal life?" ''"'"hat is the 
argull1cnt of the first chapter to the IIebre\ys 6 ? 
In 'v hat terms docs God the Father address God 
the Son? (Heb. i. 8.) 'Vhat Divine attributes are 
inlplied in the word Jehovah 7 
 Repeat J erenliah 
xxiii. 5, 6. 'Vhat word is used in the Inargill in- 
stead of Lord? 'Vhat did the J e,vs understand by 
the expression "Son of God 8 ?" 'Vhat ,vas the 
ground of the charge of blasphemy brought against 
Christ? (John x. 33.) 'Vhat question ,vas put to 
our Lord, ,vhen upon his oath before Caiaphas? 

1 The real nature of God. 
2 Bt:'cause Christ is said in the same passage to have taken 
upon Himself "the form of a servant;" and as " the form of a 
servant" must mean a ser' ant, therefore "the form of God" 
must mean" God." 
3 He emptied Himself of his Di\'ine glory. The Greek is, 
ÈavTòv h:ÉVWUE, pOppQ1 1 ðov'^-ov Xaßwv. 
.. U llder
tallding to place themselves under the protection of 
the true God. 
5 By bdng in his Son Jesus Christ. 
6 To establish the superiority of Christ to all created beings. 
7 Splf-existence and eternity. 
8 They considered it to be of equal import with God. 



(::\Iatt. xxvi. 6:3.) \Vhat \vas our Lord's ans\ver? 
(l\Iatt. xxvi. 64.) 1Vhat did this ans,ver inlply 1 ? 
We have seen that Christ is Goù, and \ve n1ay 
therefore expect to find Divine attributes a
to IIin1. IIo\y does our Lord express his o\vn 
olnnipresence? (
Iatt. xviii. 20.) What Divine 
attribute is assigned to our Lord by St. Peter in 
John xxi. 171 'Vho inspired the \vriters of the 
Old Testament 1 (1 Peter i. 11.) 'Vhat is the 
testin10ny of St. Paul on this point? (2 Tim. 
iii. 16.) By \VhOnl did God nlake the ,vorlds? 
(Heb. i. 2.) How is this further stated in Col. 
i. 16? On \VhOlU did St. Stephen call \vhil<:} 
his n1urderers ,vere stoning him 1 (Acts vii. 59.) 
'Vhat evidence does this afford of the Divinity of 
Christ 2 ? 
The Incarnation of Christ.- What do you mean 
by the tenn "incarnation 3 1" In ,vhat words does 
Isaiah predict the incarnation of Christ? (Isaiah 
vii. 14.) 'Vhat happened accordingly in the ful- 
ness of time? (Gal. iv. 4.) Ho\v is this event de- 
scribed by St.l\Iatthe\v? (i. 18.) Of 'v hat t,YO parts 
does nlan consist? Did Christ take both a hUl11an 
body and a hUlnan soul? 'Vith respect to the 
body, ,vhat is the evidence in Ileb. x. 5 1 Did 
Christ take part of flesh and blood? (Heb. ii. 14.) 
Was He subject to \\Teariness 1 (John iv. 6.) 

1 That He waR the Son of God, accordinO' to the Eastern mode 
of affirm iug a thing. 0 
2 St. Stephen, full of the Holy Ghost, pa)'s our Lord divine 
3 The taking of flesh, the assuming of human nature. 
B 6 



Hunger? (l\Iatt. iv. 2.) Thirst? (John xix. 28.) 
1Vith respect to the soul, did thc n1Índ of Christ 
gro,v and increase like that of other Dlcn? (Luke 
ii. 52.) 'Vhat do JOu Dlean by wisdonl? Had 
Christ feeling as ,veIl as intellect? Could lIe 
sorrow' for others? (John xi. 35. Luke xix. 41.) 
Could He sorro,v for IIinlself? (l\Iatt. xxvi. 37.) 
In ".hat t,vo respects did our Lord differ froln 
other lllen 1 ? 
The Atone1nent.-The ,vord sacrifice is used in 
different senses. In ,vhat sense is it used in IIeb. 
xiii. 1:5? In "That sense is it used in thi8 ...\.rticle 2 ? 
What do you Inean by atonenlent 3 ? Ho,v did 
Christ becollle an atonenlent? Could any suffer- 
ings short of death have atoned for our sins? 
'Vhat is the wages of sin? (RonlHns vi. 23.) 
In "yhat respect did the death of Christ differ 
fronl that of other men 4 ? Did He truly suffer 
and die? \Vhat proof did the soldiers, ,vho 
l)ierced the side of Christ, afford of his death 5? 
\Vhat steps did Pilate take to satisfy hinlself of 
the death of Christ? (l\Iark xv. 44, 45.) 'Vhy is 
it asserted that Christ ,vas buried 6? Ho,v does 
Isaiah predict the sufferings of Christ? (Isaiah 
liii. 4-6.) Did Christ merely die to put away 
the sin of Aclanl? Ho\y is this expressed by St. 

1 His miraculous conception and his sinlessness. 
2 As a propitiatory sacrifice; an offering to make an atone- 
ment for sin. 
3 The reconciling of two parties; the setting them at one. 
4 It was voluntary. 5 John xix. 33, 34. , 
6 It affords an additional proof of his death; and in its cir- 
cumstances it is the fulfilment of prophecy. 




Paul? (Rom. Y. 16.) What is nleant by rcdenlP- 
tion 1 ? IIo,v has Christ redeemed mankind? 
(1 Peter Ì. 19.) Has Christ redecnled all nlan- 
kind? (1 John ii. 2.) Ho,v does the atonement 
proye the Godhead of Christ 2 ? Ho,v his man- 
hood :I ? 
Evidence from ...lntiqu.ity.-Did the early Church 
believe in the Divinity of Christ? 'Yhen did St. 
Ignatius live? (about A.D. 100.) 'Vhat is his tes- 
timony to the Divinity ofChrist 4 ? ...At what Council 
was the Nicene Creed published? When was that 
Council held 5 ? In "That terms does the Nicene 
Creed declare the Divinity of Christ? IIo,v does 
St. Ignatius speak of the manhood of Christ 6 ? 
Give a testinlony to the Godhead and to the nlan- 
hood of Christ from St. Chrysostom 7 ? 'Vhen did 
Clenlent of Rome live? (about A.D. 90.) In "That 
tenns does he speak of the death of Christ 8 ? 

1 Buying back again. Delivering b,y pa,ying a ransom. 
2 None but God could bear the sins of all the world. 
3 None but man could suffer. 
4 ST. IG
ATIus.-" I glorify Jesus Christ, even God, who has 
endued JOU with wisdom." (S. [gnat. ad Smyrn. c. 1.) 
5 A. D. 325. 
6 ST. IG
ATH;s.-He says that" Christ was truly of the seed of 
David according to the flesh, the Son of God according to the will 
and power of God, having been trul)' born of a Yirgin." (Ep. ad 
Smyrn. ].) 
7 ST. CHRíSOSTOU.-" 'Vhen t.hou hearest of Christ, do not 
think Him God only, or man on I)", but both together." (Cltrysost. 
Xo1'. EÍç 'T"ÒV 'T"ífLWV O'Tavpóv.) 
T.-" Let us look stedfastly 11 1 )On the blood of 
Christ, and see how precious his blood is in the sight of God, 
because being poured out on account of our salvation, it has 
obtained the gift of repentance for the whole world." (S. Clementis 
Qd Conntlt. Ep. [vii.]) 



Of the going down of Christ into fleU. 
As Christ died for us, and was buried, so also is it 
to be believed that He went down into hell. 

De des,ens'lt Christi ad inferos. 
Quemadmodunl Christus pro nobis mortuus est, et 
sepultus; ita est etialn credendus ad inferos descendisse. 

'Vhat does this Article assert? IIo,y is this 
truth a
serted in the Apo:5tles' Creed? Of ,vhat 
two parts does Ulan consist? How' Inay death be 
described I? Had Christ a hUlnan soul, and a 
hUluan body? 'Vhat becalne of Christ's body after 
death? 'Vhat becalue of his soul? IIo,v docs this 
truth establish the certainty of Christ's death? 
What is the old Ineaning of the ,,"ord lIen 2 ? 
On ,vhat subject does St. Peter speak in Acts 
ii. 22 3 ? "\Vhat prophecy docs he quote to prove 
thc resurrection of Christ? (Psaln1 xvi. 8-10.) Of 
'VhOlll does Dayid speak in these 'words? IIow' 
does St. Petcr explain his nleaning? What ,vord 
does he substitute for Holy One? \Vhat is the 
Greek ,vord translated Hell in that passage 4,? 
How does this passage l..lake it evident that Christ's 
soul went to Hades 5 ? 

1 The separation of the soul from the bod)'. 
2 The place of departed spirits, both of the righteous and the 
3 The death and resurrection of Christ. 
4, II mips, the unseen w01'ltl. 
5 He declares that it was not left there. 




EL'idence from A ntiquity.- What is the testi- 
mony of Irenæus to this truth 11 Give the evidence 
of St. Athanasius 21 1Vhat was the error of Apol- 
linarius 3? "\Vhat "Tas the argulllent by w'hich the 
Fathers confuted this error 4 1 


Of the Resurrection of Christ. 
Christ did truly rise again from deatb, and took 
again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things apper- 
taining to the perfection of man's n3ture; wherewith 
He ascended into heaven, and there sitteth, until He 
return to judge aU men at the last day. 

De Resurrectione Christi. 

Christus vere a 1110rtuis resurrexit, suunlque corpus 
CUll1 carne, ossibus, omnibusque ad integritateln hu- 
manæ naturæ pertinentibus, recepit; ClUn quibus in 
cælum ascendit, ibique residet, quoad extremo die ad 
judicandos homines reversurus sit. 

What does this Article assert. 5? On ,vhat grounds 

1 J RE
ÆUS.-" Our Lord was in the middle of the shadow of 
death, where the souls of the dead were, and then rose again with 
his body, awl after his resurrection was taken up into heaven." 
(Irenælls ad-r. Hær. 1. v. c. 31.) 
2 ST. ATHANASIUS.-" Christ was buried; his soul, that went to 
Hades: but st'eing it could not be held tllere, it was restored to his 
body, and so He arose again." (Atltan. de duabus in Christo naturis, 
vol. ii.) 
3 He denied that Christ had a human soul. 
4 That Christ descended into hell; which could neither be true 
of his body, nul' of his Godhead, but only of his soul. (See Pearson 
on the Creed, p. 231, ed. IGG9.) 
ð 'fhe resurrection of Christ, his ascension, and his future 
coming to judgment. 




is the resurrection of Christ inlportant 1 ? Is our 
Lord's resurrection predicted in the Old Testament? 
(Psalm xvi. 9, 10.) Ho,v does our Lorù predict 
his o,vn resurrection? (
Iatt. xx. 19.) "\Vhat signs 
<lid He give to the Jews for this purpose ? (
xii. 39, &c.) Did the J e,vs renlenl bel' this prophecy 
after our Lord's crucifixion? (
Iatt. xxvii. 63.) 
"\Vhat <lirection
 ,,-ere given by Pilate in conse- 
qùence? (
latt. xxvii. 66.) -\Vhat ,vere the things 
which the ,vatch sho,ved after,vards to the chief 
priests 2? IIo\v do you infer this? (
Iatt. xxviii.) 
1:2, 13.) 'Vhat additional evidence is thus afforded 
to the truth of Christ's resurrection 3 ? To ,vhonl 
did Christ first appear? (l\Iark xvi. 9.) Ho,v 
11lany times did Christ appear? "\Vhat ,vas the 
greatest number of witnesses present at one time? 
(I Cor. xv. 6.) 'Vhich of the disciples doubted 
the truth of Christ's resurrection? To ,vhat good 
purpose did the unbelief of Tholnas tend 4 ? flow? 
(John xx. 27.) 1Vhat ot.her proof did our Lord 
give of the reality of his resurrection? (Luke 
xxiv. :j9-43.) IIo,y is the evidence of our Lord's 
resurrection sunlnled up by St. Luke? (.Acts i. 3.) 
Christ's Ascension.-Ho,v is our Lord's ascen- 
sion prefig'ltred in the Old Testament 5 ? On ,vhat 

1 It is his greatest miracle; it is the fulfilment of prophecy; 
it is a testimony that the atonement was accepted (Rom. iv. 25); 
and it is tllP earnest and assurance of our own resurrection. Rom. 
viii. II. I Cor. xv. 20. - 
2 TIle resurrection, with all its circumstances; the appearance 
of the angel, &c. 3 It is attested b,y his enemies. 
i To the more "confirmation of the faith." (Collect for St. 
Thomas's Day.) 
5 By the ascension of Elijah, and by the entering in of the 
High Priest into the Holy of Holies. 



festival of the Church of England is the narra- 
tive of Elijah's ascension appointed to be read? 
Ho,v often did the High Priest under the J e,vish 
hrw enter within the veil? For ,vhat })urpose? 
How. is this applied by the Apostle to Christ? 
(Heb. ix. 11, 12.) Ho,v is Christ's ascension pre- 
dicted in the Old Testan1ent? (Psalnllxviii. 18.) 
Ho,v did Christ predict his own ascension? 
(John xvi. 28; xx. 17.) IIo\v is the event itself 
recorded? (Luke xxiv. 50, 51. Acts i. 9.) \Vhy is 
the ascension of Christ ilnportant I? 1Vhat is a 
forerunner 2? IIo,v is Christ described in Heb. vi. 
20? Christ then has gone up in his divine and hu- 
man nature into heaven. Where is lIe in heaven? 
'Vhat do you mean by the right hand of God? 
With respect to what nature may Christ be said 
to be exalted? Is this exaltation predicted in the 
Old Testament? (Psalm ex. 1.) IIo\v long \vill 
Christ sit at the right hand of God? \Vhat office 
is He now performing there? (Heb. vii. 25.) 
Oh'rist's fulu're j'lldgment.- 'Vhat truth is in- 
volved in the doctrine of future judgment 3? 'Vhat 
sect of the Jews doubted or denied a future state? 
'Vhat part of the Old Testament did the Sadducees 
reject'? l\fight they have discoyered this truth in 
the Pentateuch? (
Iatt. xxii. 31, 32.) 'Vhat other 

1 It is a proof that the human nature can be admitted again 
into the presence of God. 
2 One who goes before to prepare the way for others to follow. 
3 That of a future state. 
, They rejected all the Old Testament, excepting the five books 
of .Moses. 




intimations are given of a future state in the Olù 
Testanlont? (J ob xix. 25, 26. Ezekiel xxxvii. 
Daniel xii. 2. Psalnl xyii. 15, &c.) IIo,v is the 
conling of Christ clearly revealed in tho New' 
Testall1ent? (Acts x. 42; xyii. 31.) 1Vhy is a 
futuro judgule t necessary 1 ? 1Vhy is Christ pe- 
culiarly suited for this great purpose 2? In \vhat 
three different states is Christ described in the 
Gospel S? IIo\\r does his last state, that in \vhich 
He no,v is, differ fronl the first 4,? Is Christ reign- 
ing no\y? \Vhen \vill the mediatorial kingdom 
ternlinate? (] Cor. xv. 2
Evidence fro'Jn Antiquity.-Ilo\v does St. Igna- 
tius speak of tho resurrection of Christ 5? Ho\y 
does St. Cyprian attest this truth 6? Quote a tes- 
tilllOllY froin Irenæus 7 ? 

1 To "indicate God's moral government. 
2 Because as God He will juJ
e the world in ri
hteousness, and 
as JIm/- He will be touched with the feeling of our infirmities. 
3 'flmt hefore his advent; that in which He was during his 
sojourn on earth; and that in which He now is, at the right hanù 
of God. (.John xvi. 28. Phil. ii. G, &.c.) 
4, In his keeping the human nature, and being the Head of the 
5 ST. IGNATIt'"S.-" I lmow that He" as in the flesh after the re- 
surrection, and I believe that He is ; and when He came to those 
who were with Peter, He s :id to them, , Take hold of me, feel me, 
and see that I am no unbo,lied spirit.'" (S. Ignat. ad Smyrn. c. 3.) 
fI ST. CVPRTAN.-" Aftf>r He had spent forty days with his dis- 
ciples, He was then taken up into heaven, a cloud beilJ
about Him, that the human nature which He loved, which He 
assumed, which He protectpd from death, He mi
ht triumphantly 
carry to his Father." (Cyprian. de idulor. Tanitate, Tract. 4.) 
7 IRENÆus.-" Christ rose again the substance of flesh, and 
showed his disciples the mark of the nails and the wound in his 
6ide, which are proofs that his flesh rose again from the dead." 
(lren. ad
. Hær. l. v. c. 7.) 



Of the Holy Ghost. 
The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and 
the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with 
the Father and the Son, very and eternal God. 
De SpirUu Sancto. 
Spiritus Sanctus, a Patre et Filio procedens, ejusdelll 
est cum Patre et Filio essentiæ, majestatis, et gloriæ, 
verus ac æternus Deus. 

"\Vhat does this Article assert? 1Vhat is the 
lneaning of the word Ghost I? \Vhat is the relation 
,vhich in this Article is declared to exist behveen 
the Holy Ghost, and the Father and the SOIl 2 ? 
Where is God the Father said to send the Com- 
forter? (John xiv. 26.) 1Vhere does Christ say 
that He .will send the COlnforter? (John xv. 26.) 
What do we infer fronl these t,yO passages 3 ? 
The Personality of the Holy Ghost.- "\Vhat 
erroneous opinion has been held ,yith regard to 
the 1101y Spirit 4? W11at is the Greek word trans- 
lated Spirit 5? Ilow ,vas this ,yord applied by the 
ancient Greek "Titers 6 ? How is the Spirit here 
spoken of distinguished froln all other spiritual 
bcings 7 ? In ,vhat nanle are Christians baptized? 
1Vhat is llleant by being baptized in the nanle of 

1 It is an old Saxon word meaning" Spirit." 
2 He is declared to proceed fr0m them both. 
3 That the Holy Spirit has the same relation to the Son that 
He has to the Father. 
" That He is a mere quality or attribute derived from God, 
which when withheld is of no avail. 
5 ITvEÌ1pa. 6 To the incorporeal beings of another world. 
7 By the epithet" the Holy." 



anyone? What absurdity ,vould result fron1 
hencc, supposing that thc IIoly Spirit ,vas a luere 
quality or attribute I? 'Vhom does St. Paul exhort 
the Ephcsians not to grieye? (Ephes. iy. 30.) Can 
a nlere quality or attribute be grieved? 'Vho is 
said to Illake intercession for us? (Rom. viii. 
'Vith ,vhonl? But if the Spirit of God intercedes 
,,,ith God, ,vhat must follo\v 2? 'Vho "'Tought the 
n1Ïraculous gifts ,vith ,vhich the carly Church ,vas 
cndow'cd? (1 Cor. xii. 11.) 1Vhat description is 
given hy Christ of the C0111forter ? (John xiv. 26.) 
1Vhat office does Christ assign to IIim? 1Vhich 
pronoun is used in this passage in refercnce to the 
Spirit? 'Vhy? IIow' does the IIoly Ghost differ 
fron1 the Father S ? IIo,y frolll the Son 4, ? 
The Divinity of the Holy Ghost.-We have seen 
that the IToly Ghost is a person. What is his 
dignity? 1Vhose place ,vas He sent to supply? 
When )[oses canle forth froIH holding cOlll1llunion 
,vith God, ,,,,hat did he put on his face? (Exod. xxxiv. 
34.) 1Vhy? 'Vhat allu.sion is made to this by St. 
Paul? (2 Cor. iii. 15.) 1Vho ,vas that Lord ,vith 
'VhOlll l\Ioses cOlllnluned on the lllount 5? To ,vholn 

I Christians would then profess faith in a mere quality or pro- 
perty, and that, too, associated with almi
hty and eternal agents. 
2 That He is distinct from God the Father. 
3 He is his messenger. 4, He is his 
5 2 Cor. iii. 17.-" The Spirit is here so plainly said to be the 
Lord, that is, Jehovah, the one eternal God, that the adversaries 
of this truth must either deny that tlte Lord is here to be taken for 
God, or that tlte Spirit is to be taken for the Spirit of God; either 
of which denials must seem very strange to any person which 
considereth the force and plainness of the Apostle's discourse." 
(Pearson on tlte Creed, p. 317, ed. 16G9.) 



did ....\.l1anias lie? In lying to the Holy Ghost, to 
,vhonl ill other ,vords did he lie? (Acts v. 3, 4.) Of 
,vhonl arc Christians said to be the tenlple? (1 Cor. 
iii. 16.) Ho,v nlay they be said to be the telnple 
of God? 'Yhat do you infer? 
1Vhy is this Divine Being called The Holy 
Spirit 1 ? I-Io,v are Christians justified 2 ? 'V ould 
justification alone be sufficient for the spiritual 
,vallts of luan? How are ,ve to continue in the 
favour of God 3? Can .we do this of ourselves? 
Ho\y is this .want supplied? (Titus iii. 5. Romans 
viii. 26.) Is sanctification the ,york of a Divine 
Evidence fTom A ntiq1Jity.- Did the early Church 
believe in the Divinity of the Holy Ghost? Quote 
the te
tinlony of St. Basil 4. "\Vhat is the evidence 
of St. Augustine 5 ? Of Tertullian 6 ? 

1 Because his special office is to sanctify. 
2 By the merits and death of Jesus Christ. 
3 By following after holiness. 
4 ST. BASIL.-" Seeing wbat is common to the Father and Son, 
is common also to the Spirit; seeing by the same things that God 
the Father and the Son are characterized and described in Scrip- 
ture, by tbe same things is the Holy Ghost characterized and 
described; it is hence gathered that the Spirit is of the same Deity 
with the Father." (Basil adv. Ellnom. 1. 5.) 
E.-" For so the Father is God, and the Son 
God, and tIle Holy Ghost God, and altogether one God; and yet it 
is not in vain dlat in this Trinity none of them is called the 'V ord 
of God but the Son, nor the gift of God but the Holy Ghost." 
(See Bereriil!fe, Oxford edition, vol. i. p. 249.) 
.-" In the mean time He poured forth the Holy 
Ghost, a gift which He had received from the Father; the third 
name of the Godhead, and the third Person in the order or rank 
of the Divine :l\lajesty." (Tert. adr P'Taxeam, c. 30.) 





Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. 
HOLY Scripture containeth all things necessary to sal- 
vation; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may 
be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, 
that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or 
be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the 
name of the Holy Scripture we do understand those 
Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of 
whose authority was never any doubt in the Church. 
Of the Names and Number of the Canonical Books. 
Genesis The First Book of Samuel The Book of Esther 
Exoùus The Second Book of Samuel The Book of Job 
Leviticus The First Book of Kings The Psalms 
NumLers The Second Book of Iiings The Proverbs 
Deuteronomy The First Book of Chronicles Ecclesiastes,or Preacher 
Joshua. The Second Book of Cantica, or Song of Solo- 
Chronicles mon 
Judges The First Book of Esdras Four Prophets the 
(Ezra) grea tel' 
Ruth The Second Book of Esùras TwelveProphets the less. 
( Nehemiah) 

And the other Book
 (as Hierome saith) the Church 
cloth read for examplt and instruction of manners; but 
yet doth it not applÝ them to establish any doctrine; 
such are these following,- 
The Third Book of Esdras 
The Fourth Book of Esdras 
The Book of Tobias 
The Book of Judith 
The rest of the Book of Esther 
1'he Book of Wisdom 
Jesus the SOL of Sirach 

Baruch the Prophet 
The Song of the Three Children 
The Story of Susanna 
Of Bel and the Dragon 
The Prayer of l\1anasses 
The First Book of :l\Iaccabees 
The Second Book of Maccabees. 



All the Books of the Ne\v Testament, as they are 
commonly received, we do receive, and account them 

De divinis Scripturis, quod sufficiant ad salutern. 
Scriptura sacra continet omnia quæ ad salutem sunt 
necessaria, ita ut quicquid in ea nee legitur, neque inde 
probari potest, non sit a quoquam exigendum, ut tan- 
quam articulus fidei credatur, aut ad salutis necessitatem 
requiri putetur. 
Sacræ Scripturæ nomine, eos Canonicos libros veteris 
et novi Testamenti intelligin1us, de quorum auctoritate, 
in Ecclesia nunqUalll dubitatum est. 

De ...\Tominib'lls et Numero Librorum sacræ Canonicæ 
Scripturæ veteris Testamenti. 

N umeri 
J osuæ 
J udicum 

Prior Libel' Samue1is Libel' Hester 
Prior Libel' Regum Libel' Job 
Secundus Libel' Samuelis Psalmi 
Secundus Liher Regum Proverbia 
Priur Libel' Pal'aliporn. Ecclesiastes vel Concionator 
SecundusLiber Paralipom.Cautica Sulomonis 
Primus Libel' Esùl'æ 4 Pl'ophetæ 
Secullùus Libel' Esdrm 12 Prophetæ 1tlinores. 

Alios autem Libros (ut ait Hieronymus) legit quidem 
Ecclesia, ad exempla vitæ, et formandos mores; illos 
tamen ad dogmata confirmanda non adhibet; 11t sunt,- 

'fertius Libel' Esdræ 
Quartus Libel' Esdræ 
Libel' Tubim 
Libel' Judith 
Reliquum Libri Hester 
Libel' Sal)ientiæ 
Libel' J ebU filii Sirach 

Baruch Propheta 
Canticum Tl'ium Puerorum 
Historia Susannæ 
De Bel et DracoJ.le 
Ol'atio l\lanassis 
Prior Libel' l\Iaccabæorum 
Secundus Libel' 

N ovi T estamenti omnes libros (ut vulgo recepti sunt) 
recipin1us et habemus pro Canonicis. 



"\Vha t does this Article assert I? 'Vith regard to 
the first point, ,,"hat is the difference between tIle 
Church of England and the Church of Rome 2 ? 
'Yhat is the meaning of the ,vord canonical 3 ? 
What are canonical Scriptures 1 'Vhy is this term 
used 4 ? What do you mean by .Apocryphal books 5 ? 
The sufficiency of the Holy Script1lres for sal- 
vation.- \Vhat does the Church of Ronle assert 
to be necessary to salvation, besides the Holy 
Scriptures 6 1 "\Vhat is tradition 7 ? IIo,v may 
truths be handed do\vn fronl age to age 8 ? If oral 
tradition is necessary for salvation, ,vhat 111Ust 
follo,v 91 I s all that is necessary for nlan to 
kno'v revealed in Scripture? (John xx. 30, 31.) 
If traditions \vere also necessary, ,vhat lllight ,ye 
expect 10 1 Is any thing to be gathered from the 
Scril)tures thenlselves to lead us to suppose that 
they are incomplete 1 'Vhat does St. Paul exhort 
the Thessalonians to hold 1 (2 Thess. ii. 15.) 
What ,vere the traditions \vhich they had received 
by 1nouth fronl St. Paul 11 1 Could they have con- 
tained any thing necessary to salvation not to be 

1 That Holy Scripture contains all things necessary to salvation. 
It declares what are the Holy Scriptures, and gives the opinion 
of the Church with regard to the Books called Apocr)'phal. 
2 The Church of Rome asserts that the Scriptures are incom- 
plete without the admission of oral tradition. 
3 That which may be taken as a rule. 
4 To distinguish them from those books which may not be 
tal{el1 to establish any doctrine. 
S Books of doubtful origin and authority. 6 Oral tradition. 
7 Something handed down from generation to generation. 
S Either orally, that is, by word of mouth, or in writing. 
9 That the Scriptures are incomplete. 
10 That the Scriptures would say so. 
11 Those truths which he had taught by his preaching. 



found in the Holy Scriptures? 'Vhy? (2 Tim. iii. 
] 6, 17.) IIo,v ,vas the ,,-ill of God made kno\vn 
in the earliest ages of the \vorld 1 ? Ho\v did this 
lllode of teaching accord with the circnnlstances 
of Incn at that tinlC 2 ? What happened notwith- 
standing 3 ? "\Vhen God set apart the Jewish 
nation, did lIe instruct them b.y tradition or 1y a 
,vritten"la,y 1 Did they n1Ïx up traditions ,vith the 
Divine ht\y? \Vere they condemned for so doing? 
Iark vii. 13.) If a practice is condenlned in the 
first dispensation, what Inay ,ve infer"? "\Vhat 
reason does St. Luke assign for \vriting his Gospel? 
(Luke i. 4.) "\Vhat kind of instruction ,vas that 
to which he refers 5 ? 
The Church of England r
jects oral tradition. 
Is there no kind of tradition ,vhich she allo,ys 6 ? 
l\Iention some instances in \vhich this kind of tra- 
dition is justly a.vailable to establish the truth 7. 
Ho"- has the Church detern1Ïned the Canon of 

1 It was written in the heart of man, and then handed down 
from father to son. 
2 The great age to which men lived gave them time and OppOl'- 
tunit), to transmit or hand down the knowledge of the will of God 
from one to the other. For example; Methuselah lived 300 years 
in Adam's life-time, and Shem lived 100 years with 
and 100 with Abraham; so that there were but two links between 
Adam anù Abraham. 
3 The law and the knowledge of God were lost. 
" That it is condemned also in the second. 
s Cat
chetical instruct.ion; instruction by sOU1tding into tlte ear. 
6 She allows and makes continual use of ltistorical tradition, 
which is the authenticated eviùence of facts. 
7 The universal establishment of Episcopacy; the substitution 
of the L()rd's day for the Jewish Sabbath; the general prevalence 
of Infant Baptism, &c. [Not however that they rest ollly on 
historical testimony; but are capable of fair proof by induction 
from Holy Scripture.] 



Scripture 1 ? "\Vhat is the adn1ission of Baxter on 
tJ1Îs point 2 ? 
The GarlOnical Books of the Old and }.T ew Testa-. 
mento-Docs our Saviour frequently allude to the 
Old Teshunent? What general testinlony does lIe 
give in the Go
pel of St. Luke? (Luke xxiv. 440) 
How" are the same ,yords applied by Josephus 3 ? 
By whose inspiration is all Scripture given? (2 Tim. 
iii. 160) To ,vhat part of the Scriptures ,vas this 
expression originally applied? 
'Ve have seen that there is full evidence to the 
Divine authority of the Old Testament in the N e,v. 
How. must "Te proye the Divine authority of the 
Books of the N e,v Testament'? "\Vere n1Qst of the 
Books of the K e"
 Testalnent ahvays ackno,vledged? 
1Vllat ,,0llld you infer from the doubts ,vhich existed 
with regard to a fe'y of then1 5 ? \Vere the ,vriters 
of these books inspired men? \Vhat do you 
infer 6 ? In "'hat ,yords does St. Paul dec1are 
this? (1 Thess. i v. 80) 
The Books called Apocryphalo- Were the books 

1 By historical tradition, as she has received it from the 
fathers; by the evidence, i. eo of tbose who lived nearest the time 
in which those books were written. 
2 Baxter admits with reg'lrd to certain books of the Old Testa- 
ment, that he could never have known them" to be written by 
Divine inspiration, but by tradition;" meaning, of course, his- 
torical tradition. (Ba.rter, Preface to Second Part of Saints' 
3 To the whole Bible. (Joseph,. cont. Apion. l. i. 
4 'Ve mURt show that they are-I, gemline, or written by those 
wl10se names they bear; 2, authentic, or containing true accounts; 
3, impireil. 
5 'fhese doubts prove their correctness, showing the caution 
with which books were admitted into the Canon. 
6 That their writings also were inspired. 



of the ...\.pocr
rpha included in the Canonical books 
r the Jews 1 By ,vhom did God nlake l\:nown 
his will in tilnes past to the fathers? (Heb. i. 1.) 
Who ,vas the last of the prophets? \Vhen did 
l\Ialachi live? Did the spirit of prophecy .cease 
amongst the J e"
s after the tinle of )Ialachi? 
When ,vcre the Apocryphal Books written 1 1 
Evidencefrom Alltiqltity.-Did the early Church 
believe in the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures to 
salva tion? ",Vhat is the testimony of Irenæus 2 1 Of 
Tertullian 31 Of St. Cyril of Alexandria 41 Did 
the PrilllÏti,re Church confÌrnl the Jewish Canon of 
the Old Testanlent 51 'Vhose testiuIony is quoted 
in this Article with regard to the Apocryphal 
Books? Is the evidence of St. Jerome on this 
point confirnled by others 6 1 

1 They were written after the time of 'Malachi; or, at all events, 
if any of them had beEn written before, and that by the spirit uf 
prophecJ, they would have been received into the Canon by the 
Jews, which no one of them ever was. 
Æt:"s. -" The Scriptures are indeed perfect." (Lib. ii. 
c. 21. Oxf. Ed.) 
3 TERTULLlAN.-" If it be not written, Jet him fear that woe that 
is appointed to those that put any thing to, or take ;U1J thing from, 
the word of God." (Tèrt. adr. Hermoge1l. c. 22.) 
4 ST. CYRIL.-" That "hich the Holy Scripture bath not saiù, 
how can we receive it, and put it into the catalogue of those things 
that be true 
" (Berf'rldge, yo1. i. p. 268.) 
5 Eusebius, Gregor)', aud others, give a complete catalogue; and 
at the Council of Laodicea in the 4th centur)., the Canon of the 
Old and New Testament was settled just as we received it; except- 
ing the Book of Revelation, which was omitted because they were 
laJing down rules for reading the Scriptures in the Church. 
ASI US.-" Besides these, there are other books of tho 
Old Testament not received into the Canon of the Scriptures, but 
only read to the catechumens, b..c." (Ath-anas. SYJlOps. S. Scrip- 
turæ, init.) EPIPHA:\"ICS.-" They are useful and profitable indeed, 
but are not brought into the number of Canonical books." (See 
Be-ceridge, vol. i. p. 286.) 

c 2 



Of the Old Testament. 
The Old Testament is not contrary to the New; for 
both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is 
offered to :\Iankind by Christ, who is the only l\lediator 
between God and 1\1 an, being hoth God 
md 1\lan. 
"Therefore they are not to be heard, which feign that 
the old Fathers did look only for transitory promises. 
Although the Law given from God by l\Ioses, as touch- 
ing Ceremonies and Rites, do not bind Christian men, 
nor the Civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to be 
received in any commonwealth; yet notwithstanding, 
no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience 
of the Commandments which are called 
De J7eteri Testamento. 
Testamentum Vetus Novo contrarium non est, quando- 
quidem tam in 'T eteri, quam in Novo, per Christum, 
qui unicus est 
Iediator Dei et hominum, Deus et homo, 
æterna vita humano generi est proposita. Quare male 
sentinnt, qui veteres tantum in promissiones tempo- 
rarias spera sse confingnnt. Quanq uam lex a Deo data 
per l\losen (quoad cæremonias et ritus) Christianos non 
astringat, neque civilia ejus præcepta in aliqua repub- 
lica necessaria recipi debeant, nihilominus tamen ab 
obedientia mandatorum (quæ moralia vocantur) nullus 
(quantumvis) Christianus est solutus. 
\Vhat is the first assertion in this Article? "\Vhat 
proof is offereù for this assertion? "\Vhat conclu- 
sion is ùra,vn? Into ,vhat IJarts ll1ay the l\Iosaic 
la,v he divided t? Is the cereulonialla,v binding on 
Christian lTIen? Is the civil binding? Is the nloral ? 
You say that the Old Testanlcnt is not con- 
trary to the New. What do you nlean 2 ? "\Vho 
is the SUIH and substance of both Testalnents? 

1 The ceremo'llial, the CÍ'Ûl, and the moral. 
2 They do not teach different doctrine. 



'Vhat relation did l\Ioses bear to Christ? In ,vhat 
sense was 
Ioses a l\Iediator 1 ? "\Vhat does St. John 
declare to be the spirit of prophecy? (Rev. xix. 
10.) Repeat the first prophecy of a Redeemer. 
(Gen. iii. 15.) 'Vhat "Tas the promise given to 
Abrahanl? (Gen. xxii. 18.) Ho,v does Balaam 
prophesy of Christ? (XUlllb. xxiv. ] 7.) Does our 
Saviour apply this expression to Hinlself in the 
New' Testanlent? (Rev. xxii. 16.) Repeat the 
promise in J eren1Ïah xxxi. 33. Ho,v does this 
!Jron1Íse point out the nature of the future cove- 
nallt 2 ? 'Vere the sacrifices of the Jewish la,v suffi- 
cient in themselves to take a,vay sin? (Heb. x. 4.) 

ro what did they all look forward? 
IIad there been no promise of future life through 
a Redeelller, to what alone could the old FatlJers 
have linlited the pron1Ïses in the Old Testall1ent 3 ? 
'Vho are 11leant here by the old Fathers? Did the 
old Fathers look only to transitory prolnÜses? 
Did Abraham ? (John viii. 56.) Did :\Ioses 1 (Heb. 
xi. 26.) Did David? (Acts ii. 30, 31.) Did Job? 
(Job xix. 2:5.) I-Io,v is this truth stated in the 
Epistle to the IIebrews? (Heb. xi. 13-16.) 
'Vhat is nleant by the ceremonial law 4 ? Why- 
n1Íght ,ve infer that the cereillollial law would not 
be binding on Christian III en ;; ? 'Vith regard to 

1 Moses was only a medium of communicati '1
 with God; Christ 
is the medium of 'l.ecollci1iation. 
2 It points out its 
.i To temporal blt'ssing::;. 
4 The law relating to the outward circumstances of Divine 
.'i Because it was onl). instituted for a particular purpose, and 
C 3 



,vhat rite of the cerenlonial law' did there arise a 
dissension in the early days of the Church? (Acts 
xv. 1, 2.) IIo,v ,vas the dispute settled? (verse 19.) 
'Vhat ad vice does St. Paul give to the Colossians 
on this point? (Co!. ii. ] 6.) IIow does he warn the 
Galatians against the use of the cerelnonial la,v? 
(Gal v. 2.) 'Vhat reason is given in the Epistle 
to the Hebre,vs for this change? (Ueb. vii. 12.) 
'Vhat are meant by civil precepts 1 ? 'Vhat is 
the doctrine of the Church of England with regard 
to the civil precepts of the Jewish la,v 1 'Vhat do 
you nlean by a cOlllmOn\vealth 2? On wllat grounds 
( of reason) ,vould you infer that these precepts arc 
not necessarily binding 3 ? How do you infer the 
same thing fronl Scripture 4? 'Vhat commanù does 
St. Peter give ,vith regard to the laws of nlen? 
(1 Peter ii. 13.) To ,vhom ,vas his Epistle ,vritten ? 
Were thf' Christians to 'VhOlll he "Tote, living 
(probably) in many different comnlonwealths? 
'Vhat is the only lin1Ìt of our obedience to the la,vs 
of men? 
'Vhat are meant by m,oral laws 5 ? Ilow is the 
nloralla,v sUlnnled up in Scripture? 'Vhat is the 

would therefore no longer be necessary when that purpose was 
1 Precepts relating to state polit)" or civil goverr.ment; such :\8 
in the Jewi:sh law, those relating to magistrates, contracts, th{:' 
institution of tithes, ð..c. 
2 An established form of civil 1ife. 
S They were suited to the peculiar circumstances of the Jewish 
people; and for this very reason we may conclude that they were 
framed for that people onJy. 
4 The Apostles never recommended obedience to them. 
;; 1\loral Jaws are such as are agl.eeaLle to the moral sense, or 
natural conscience. 



1Vhy do you infer froin reason that this la,v is of 
perpetual obligation 1 ? "\Vhat is our Lord's asser- 
tion ,vith regard to the 11loralla,v? (:\Iatt. v. 17.) 
"\Vhat direction does He give in )fatthew xix. 17? 
"\Vhat does St. J anles say of faith ,,
ithout obe- 
dience? (Janles ii. 17.) Ho". will a right faith 
influence Christian 11lcn ,vith respect to the moral 
? (Ronl. iii. 31.) 
Evídencefro'JnAntiqu'ity.-Ho,v does [the Author 
of the Questions] speak of the agreement of the Old 
and New Testalncnts 2? What is the testinlony of 
St. Ignatius S ? Of St. Chrysostoll1 4 ? [Of St. Cyril 5 ?] 
II ow does St. ..A.ugustine show that the old Fathers 
did not look only for transitory pron1Ïses 6 ? Ho,v 

1 The moral law is the ullcbangeable will of God, and is there- 
fore a standing law to all nations even to the end of the world. 
2 "'rhe Apostles have taught us as themselves did learn; first, 
the precepts of the Law, and then the Gospel; for what else is 
the Law but the Gospel foreshowed 1 what other the Guspel 
than the Law fulfilled?" (Quæst.101.) 
3 ST. IG
ATlUs.-" There is one God of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, and one )lediator betwixt God and man." "All the saints 
therefore were saved in Christ, trusting in Him and expecting of 
Him." (Bnerwge, vol. i. p. :}05.) 
4 ST. C'HItYSOSTml.-" There is no difference but of names in 
the two Testaments, no' opposition or cOlltrariet
.." (Bereridge, 
vol. i. p. 30.1.) 
5 [ST. CYRIL.-" Let no one then divide the Old from the Kew 
Testament; let no one say that the Spirit in the former is one, 
and in the latter another; for thus he offends against the Holy 
Ghost Himself, whu t'Jgether with the Father and the Son is 
honoured." (Cy,'il, Leet. xvi. 4.)] 
6 ST. AUGUSTINE.-" But the Old Testament to them that rightly 
understand it, is a prophecy of the Kew 'l'estament. And there- 
fore, in that first people, the holy Patriarchs and Prophets, who 
understood what they did, or what was done by tbem, had then 
the hope of eternal salvation in the New Testament." (Aug. 
contra Fa.ust. I. 13. c. 2.) 

C 4 



does Irellæus speak of the perpetual obligation of 
the moralla,v 1 ? 


Of the Three Creeds. 
The Three Creeùs, Nicene Creed, Athanasius's Creed, 
and that which is còmmonly called the Apostles' Creed, 
ought thoroughly to be received and believed: for 
they may be proved by most certain warrants of holy 
De tribus Symbolis. 
Symbola tria, Nicænum, Athanasii, et quod vulgo 
Apostolorum appellatur, omnino recipienùa sunt et 
credenda ; natn firmissimis scripturarum testimoniis 
probari possunt. 
"\Vhat is asserted in this Article? Why are the 
three Creeds thoroughly to be believed? 1Vhat 
do you nlean by a ,varrant. 2 ? 
'Vhat is a Creed S ? 'Vhat necessity gave rise 
. to Creeds 4 ? In ,vhose nanle ,vere converts to 
Christianity baptized? "\Vhat ,vould therefore be 
required fron1 thenl before baptisnl:5? "\Vhat then 
,vould be the earliest form that a Creed ,yould 
assunle 6 ? "\Vhat nanle ,vas giyen to the Creed by 

Æus.-" For all these things do not contain any contra- 
riety or dissolution of the ancient moral laws, but their fulness 
and extension; as Himself saOth, ' ellless your rigltteoltsness exceed 
the riglltl'ousness of tlte Scribes nd Pharisees, you sltall not enter into 
tiLe kingdom of lteaven.'" (Il"en. ad",. IIær. l. iv. c. ] 3, 1.) 
2 A proof or testimony. 
3 A summary of Christian doctrine,derived from the Latin word 
credo, I belie-ve. 
4 The necessity of having definite articles of faith, extracted 
from Scripture, and sufficiently concise to be committed to memo!')'. 
5 Faith in the Holy Trinity. 
(j I t would be an amplification or expansion of the form of 



the Greek Church I? 1Vhat was signified by this 
title 2 ? 'Vhat other name did the Creed bear in 
the early ages of the Church 3 ? 
'Yhat gives authority to Creeds 4 ? What snnc- 
tion nlust they have 5? 'Vhy 6? In asserting that 
Holy Scripture contains all things necessary to 
salvation, does the Church leave her n1enlbers to 
the unrestricted exercise of their o\vn judgment 
,vith regard to the interpretation of Scripture? 
"\Vhat does she require from her members 1 ? 
What great evils have resulted from the undue 
exercise of private judglnent in this matter 8 ? 
The Three Oreeds.- "\Vhen ,vas the council at 
Nice held 9? By \VhOnl ,vas it callecl 10 ? For 
,,,hat purpose 11 ? IIown1anypersons\vere present I2 ? 
How did they detern1Íne the rule of faith 13 ? "\Vas 
the Creed then agreed upon, the san1e with that 
which has come dow.n to us 14? \Vhat addition ,vas 
made afterwards 15? \Vhat is Dleant by the expres- 
J It was called a symbol. 
2 ...\. watchword or token to distinguish Christians from be
3 A canon or rllle of faitlt. 
4 Holy Scripture. 5 That of the Church. 
6 That we may know how tbe Church interprets Scripture. 
1 That they put no interpretation un Scripture inconsistent 
with her own authorized formularies. 
8 False doctrine, heres
., and schism. 
9 A. D. 325. 10 Constantine. 
11 Principally for the }mrpose of condemning the opinions of 
Arius. 12 318. 
13 They drew up a Creed which was framed after primithre 
14 It was the same, except that it went no further than the 
words, " I believe in the Holy Ghost." 
15 The reumining clauses were added at the council of Constan- 
tinople, A.D. 381, excl.:'ptillg tllat which declares that the HoJy 
Ghost" proceeds from the Son," which was added stiJI later LJ 
the 'Vestern Church. 

c 5 



sion " God of God 1 1" Ho,v do you understand 
the \,Tords " Light of Light 2 1" 1Vhat pa

age of 
Scripture corresponds ,vith this expression? (Heb. 
i. 3.) "\Vhat is meant by tho expression "the 
Lord," as applied to the IIoly Spirit 1 \Vhere is 
the IIoly Spirit said to be the "Giver of Life 1" 
(Gen. i. 2. Ron1. viii. 11.) 
\Vho ,vas Athanasius 3 ? "11at is the })robable 
date of the Creeù ,,,hich bears his nan1e 4 1 \Vhat 
appears to have been the design of this Creed 5 ? 
What do the danlnatoryclauses in t1lÏs Creed sho,v 6 ? 
On w'hat l)assage of Scripture are they founded 1 
Iark xvi. 16.) 'Vhat is the meaning of the ,\Tord 
" inconlpre11ensible," as used in t11is Creed 7 ? 
\Vhy is the Apostles' Creeù so called? \Vhy do 
you conclude tbat it ,vas not drawn up by the 
Apostles 8 ? l\Iention one early instance of con- 
fession of faith before baptisn1, in the Acts of the 
Apostles. (Acts viii. 36, 37.) 
\Vhat 'vas the design of the three Creeùs 9 1 Can 
the different doctrines contained in these Creeds be 
ShO'Yll to have been the received doctrines of the 
primitiye Church 10 ? 

I God proceeding from God. 
2 Light proceeding from Ji!{ht, as a ray from the sun. 
S A memùel' of the Niccne Council, afterwarùs Bishop of Alex- 
4 The fourth century. (See Hooker, B. v. 
5 To (h;felld the Apostolic doctrine. 
6 The necessity of sound faith as well as sound practice. 
7 "J ncarable of bounds," or " infinite." 
8 Because if so, it would have heen uniform and preserved. 
9 To state, eJplain, :md dçfenrl the CatJIO]ic f:lith. 
10 They can all be shown independently to have been so. 







Of Original or Birth-Sin. 
ORIGINAL Sin standeth not in the following of Adam 
(as the Pelagians do vainly talk); but it is the fault 
and corruption of the nature of every man, that natu- 
rally is engendered of the offspring of Adam; whereby 
man is very far gone from original righteousness, and 
is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh 
lusteth always contrary to the Spirit; and therefore in 
every person born into this world, it deserved1 God's 
wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature 
cloth remain, yea in them that are regenerated; whereby 
the lust of the flesh, called in the Greek phronema 
sarkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sen- 
suality, some the affection, some the desire, of the flesh, 
is not subject to the Law of God. And although there 
is no condemnation for them that believe and are bap- 
tized, yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence 
and lust hath of itself the nature of sin. 

De Peccato Originali. 
Peccatum originis non est (ut fabulantur Pelagiani) 
in imitatione Adami situm, sed est "itium, et depravatio 
naturæ cujuslibet hominis ex Adamo natural iter pro- 
pagati; qua fit, ut ab originali justitia quam 10ngissime 
distet; ad ll1alum sua natura propendeat; et caro 
semper adversus Spiritl1m concupiscat; unde in uno- 
quoque nascentium, iram Dei atque damnationenl 
meretur. l\lanet etiam in renatis hæc naturæ depra- 
vatio; qua fit ut affectus carnis, Græce cþpúJ'fJjla UUPI:Òç, 
(q uod alii sapientiam, alii sensum, alii affectum, alii 
C 6 



studium carnis interpretantur,) legi Dei non subjiciatur. 
Et quanquam renatis et credentibus nulla propter 
Christum est condemnatio, peccati tamen in sese 
rationem habere concupiscentiam, fatetur Aposto]us. 
"\Vhat is the subject of this Article? "\Vhat is 
the n1eaning of the ,vord ol"iginal 1 ? To ,vha t 
kind of sin is original sin COlllll1011ly opposed? 
1Vho ,vas Pelagius 2? "\Vhat ,vas tDe error of his 
follo,vers ,vith regard to original sin 3 ? How is it 
defined in this Article? "\Vhy is it said to be the 
fault of our nature 4 ? \Vhy the COrT1Jption 5 ? 
"\Vhy is this descriptioll linlited to "eyery D1an that 
naturallyis engendered of the offspring of Adan1 6 1" 
"\Vhat ,vas nlan's original righteousness 7 1 IIo,y 
does the Article describe his fallen state 1 "\Vhat 
is nleant by the flesh 8 ? "\Vho are meant by 
"them that are regenerated 9 1" Ho,v are the 
Greek words, quoted in this Article, translated in 
the English Bible 10? \Vhat is concupiscence 11 ? 
"\Vhat are the l)ropositions contained in this 
Article 12 ? 

] That which was in the beginning. 
2 A 'Velshman who lived in the beginning of the 5th century, 
and held mall)' dangerous opinions. 
3 They held that manliÍnd are not born sinners; and that Adam 
hurt his posterit
' only by giving them so bad an example, and not 
by propagating his sin to them. .. Because we are guilty of it. 

 Because we are degenerat
d by it. 
6 That Christ might be excluded. 
7 The image of God in his soul. 8 :Man in his natural state. 
, Those who are baptized. The words re!lenerated and. baptized 
are both translated from the word "renatis" in the Latin. 
10 To be carnally minded. 11 Irregular and unlawful desire. 
12 (l) That our nature is corrupt. (2) That this corruption 
 dl'rived from our first parents. (3) 1'hat it deserves wrath. 
( 4) That this infection remains after baptism. (5) That it is not 
then liaùle to condemnation. 



Do infants, a.s ,yell as adults, require a l\Iediator? 
IDlat follows fronl hence 1 1 Repeat Genesis viii. 
2]. 1Vhat is the reason assigned in this passage 
,vhy God should not again destroy the world? Re- 
l)eat Galatians v. 17. ,rhat do you nlean by the 
flesh? I-Io,v does St. Paul describe "then1 that 
are after the flesh?" (Ronl. viii. 5.) 'Vhat strong 
internal evidence does every lllan possess that his 
nature i8 corrupt 2 ? 
1Ve see a sin1ilarity of nature in animals. Whence 
is this derived? If Adam had begotten a son 
before he fell, .what would have been the original 
state of that son 3 ? In ,vhat state ,vas Adam 
,vhen he begot children 4 ? What ,vas the conse- 
quence to then1:1? Ho,v is this expressed in 
Genesis Y. 3? In what sense does St. Paul affirnl 
that Levi n1Ïght be said to have paid tithes to 
l\lelchizedec? (Heb. vii. 9, 10.) In whose loins 
,vas the ,vhole human nature ,vhen Adam fell? 
What foHows froln hence 6? Repeat 1 Cor. xv. 22. 
IIow does David attest this truth? (Psalm Ii. 5.) 
Ho,v is it expressed by Job? (xiv. 4.) Repeat 
Psalm Iviii. 3. "\Vhy do you infer that this applies 
to all? (Romans iii. 23.) 
Repeat ROlnans v. 12-19. Why has death 
l)assed upon all men? In whom have all nlen 
sinned? What does sin deserve? 'Vhat then do 

1 That they have sin in them to be remitted. 
2 Evil pas
iolls working in his mind. 
3 He would have been furmed like his father, in the image of 
God. 4 Corrupt and mortal. 
S They were born into the world corrupt and mortal. 
6 The whole human nature fell in him. 



all men deserve? 1Vhat is tllis sin caned in the 
passagc just quoted 1 ? \Vhat is nleant by the ,,"ord 
offence in this passage 2 ? 
Is original sin rcnloved by ba1)tisll13? Repeat 
Galatians v. .1 7. \Vhat ,vas the condition of the 
persons to whoBl these words werc written? Repeat 
1 St. Peter ii. 11. Is this charge giycn to baptized 
persons? Repeat Janles i. 14. Docs this apply 
to Christians? Show frolll St. J anle
 the difference 
between original and actual sin 4 ? 
'Vhat is the 1) ass age quoted in the latter l)art of 
this Article? (ROlll. viii. 1.) 
Evidence from A ntiquity.- 'Vas the doctrine of 
original sin the belief of the early Church 5? Wllat 
is the testilnony of Clement of ROlne 61 Of Cle- 
ment of Alexandria 7 ? Of Cyprian B ? 

1 An offence. 2 The act of sinning. 
S No. Its guilt is removed, so tbat children who die before 
they are oM t.'llough to be accountable are thereby saved; but if 
they grow up, the inclination to sin remains, which they have 
iven to them to resist. 
4 Ori!Jillol sin is the lust within us which "draws us away and 
entices us." A{'(lIal 
in is " lust haying conceived and brought 
forth sin." (James i. 14, 15.) 

 The term ori!lillal sin was not adopted till the doctrine was 
questiolled in the 5th centnr).. 'fhe doctrine however has ahvaJs 
been that of the Catholic Church. 
6 CLEMENT OF RmlE.-" Moreover it is thus also written con- 
cerning Joh, , Job was jUot, without blame, upright, one that 
feared God, and shunned all evil;' but the same person accusing 
himself says, , There is no one free from pollution, even though 
his life be but one day lung.'" (S. Cle11l. ad Corinth. c. 17.) 
DRIA.-He spealis of our being "'by 
nature tot
lI)' alienated from God." (Clem. Alex. Strom. ii. 
8 CYPRlAN.-" There were before Christ also famuus men, pro- 
phets :11111 priests; but being conceived and 'born in sin, they 
wanted neither original nor personal guilt." (C!Jp. de jejunio et 
tentat. [quoted by Beuridge, '.01. i. p. 364.]) 



Of Free-TVill. 
The condition of )Ian after the fall of Adam is such, 
that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own 
natural strength and good works, to faith, and calling 
upon God: \\Therefore we have no power to do good 
works pleasant and acceptable to God, without the 
grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have 
a good wi]], and working with us when we have that 
good wil1. 
De Libero Arbitrio. 
Ea est hominis post lapsum Adæ conditio, ut sese 
naturalibus suis viribus, et bonis operibus, ad fidem 
et invocationem Dei convertere et præparare non 
possit. Quare absque gratia Dei (quæ per Christum 
est) nos præ\Teniente, ut velimus, et cooperante, dum 
volumus, ad pietatis opera facienda, quæ Deo grata 
sunt et accepta, nihil valemus. 

What ,vas the state of man's ,vill before the fall I 1 
"\Vas this freedonl entirely lost ,vhen n1all fell from 
God 2 ? "\Vhat then does this Article assert to be 
the condition of nlan since the fall? "\Vhat is 
nleant by "faith, and calling upon God 3 1" Good 
'ks are hvice spoken of in this Article; to ,vhat 
condition of luan do they refer when :first nlen- 
tioned i? To ,yhat afterwards 5? Repeat the latter 
part of this Article. 'Vhat are the two points to 
be proved 6 1 

I It was absolutely free to choose the good and refuse the evil. 
2 It became corrupted and degenerated. 
3 Christianit)'. .,& His unregenerated state. 
S His stélte as a haptized Christian. 
6 (1) The Ilpcessity of grace preventing us, and (2) the 
necessity of grace working with us. 



In ,vhat sense is the ,vord preventing used in 
this Artic1e I? Is the necessity of preventing grace 
declared in the Old Testanlent? Ho,v does Dayid 
show'its necessity? (Psalnl Ii. 10.) Ho,v is this 
truth asserted by our Saviour? (John xv. 5, last 
clallse.) Repeat John vi. 44. 'Vhat is 11leant by 
the expression drawing in this l)assage 2? Ho'v 
,vas it that Lydia attended to the things spoken of 
ùy St. Paul? (Acts xvi. 14.) IIow does St. Paul 
describe the nlethoù of salvation ? (Ephes. ii. 8, 9.) 
Is Ulan a responsible being? By ".hat criterion 
is he to be judged hereafter 3? 'V ould it consist 
,vith God's llloral governlnent to judge n1en here- 
after for ,vorks over which they have had no con- 
trol? 'Vhat ,vas the charge ,yhich Joshua ,vas 
directed to give to the Israelites? (Josh. xxiv. 15.) 
1Vhat choice did they then make ? (Josh. xxiv. 22.) 
Repeat our Sayiour's 'words (Luke xiii. 24). 'Vhat 
is the lneaning of the 'YOI'd strive'? \Vhat is St. 
Paul's advice to the Philippians? (i. 12, last 
clause.) "\Vhat reason does he give? (yerse 13.) 
1V11at passage in the Article do these t,vo verses 
illustrate? 'Vhat 1110tives are enlployed in Scrip- 
ture to urge 111 en to holines:5 5? 'Vha t do these 
various 1110tiyes i111ply 6 ? Is the grace of God 
irresistible? 'Vhat do you lllean by irresistible? 

1 Going before. Inclining. 
2 Persuading by moral means, and fit motives. 
3 By his works. 
· The Greek word is, åì'WV;
H1ef ; " use every exertion;" "be 
in an agony." 5 Exhortations, promises, threatenings, &c. 
6 The necessity fur our own exertions. 



'Vhat is St. Paul's exhortation to the Corint.hians? 
(2 Cor. vi. 1.) If men receiyc the grace of God in 
vain, how is this to bc accounted for 1 1 
Evidence fro'J1'
 Antiquity.- What ,vas the error 
of the Pelao'ians ,yith reO'ard to the subiect of this 
b 0 ;.J 
Article 2? 'Vhen controversy arose upon this 
point, ,vhat was the opposite error into which nlen 
fell S? 'Vhat is the testinlony of Irellæus ,vith 
regard to the insufficiency of 11lan'? Of St. 
Augustine 5? Ho\v does Clenlent of Alexandria 
attest the necessity of human exertion 6 ? 


Of the Justification of JJ;lan. 

'Ve are accounted righteous before God, only for the 
merit of OUf Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith, 
and not for our own works or deservings: 'Vherefore, 
that we are justified by Faith only, is a most wholesome 
Doctrine, and very fun of comfort, as ll10re ]argely 
is expressed in the Homily of Justification. 

1 They will not co-operate with God. 
2 They asserted that men were able by their own natural strength 
to turn to God. 
3 They denied the free agency of maD. 
· IRENÆus.-" No man who does not partaJie of the bJessing 
and assistance of the Lord, can procure to himself the means of 
sah-ation:' (Iren. adr. lIæ,.. 1. iv. c. 13.) 
5 ST. AUGUSTIr\E.-" As none can begin a good work without 
the Lord, so none can perfect it without the Lord." (Aug. cont. 
Pelag. 1. 2.) 
nRTA.-" God favours and co-operates 
with willing minds." Clem. Alex. Quis dires salretur? c. 21.) 



De Hominis Justificatíone. 
Tantuln propter meritum Domini ac Servatoris nostri 
J esu Christi, per fidem, non propter opera et merita 
nostra, justi coram Deo reputamur. Quare sola fiùe 
nos j ustificari doctrina est saluLerrima, et consolationis 
pIenissima, ut in hOlnilia de J ustificatione Hominis 
fusius explicatur. 
\Vhat is the subject of this Article? \Vhat do 
you mean by justification I? On account of ,vhat 
are ,ve justified 2 ? By what means do ,ve apply 
that 11lerit to ourselves 3 ? Ho,v is this doctrine 
exprcssed in the Communion Service 4? \Vhy is 
it a \vholeson1c doctrine 5? \Vhy is it fun of con1- 
fort 6? \Vhat is the Homily referred to at the 
close of this Article 7 ? 
\Vhat are the three points asserted in this 
Article 8 ? 
Repeat Romans iii. 28. \Vhat are here excluded 
fronl being the 11leanS of our justification 
is this doctrine repeatcd in another Epistle? (Gal. 
ii. 16.) Repeat Ephcs. ii. 8, 9. \Vhat is the 
l11eaning of the words "ye are saved" in this 
passage 9 ? 
1 The being accounted righteous. 
2 The merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 
3 By faith. 
4 ,. Humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and 
death of thy SOli Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we 
and aU thy whole Church may obtain remission of our sins," &c. 
(Post Communiun Serrice.) 
5 Because it humbles pride. 
6 Because it prevents despair. 
7 That of the Salration of all mankiud. 
8 (1) \Ve are not justified on account of our own works; (2) 
hut 011 account of the merit of Christ; (2) and this benefit is 
communicated to us through faith. 
1/ Ye are put into a state of salvation. 



Repeat Romans iil. 
4-' 6. 'Vhat is a propiti- 
ation I? "\Vhat then is the ground of our justifi- 
cation? "\Vhat do you mean by being justified 
freely 2 ? 
Repeat Ronlans v. 1. Repeat Gal. ii. ] 6. 
When St. Paul declares that w'e are accounted 
righteous by faith only, does he mean that a lllere 
non1Ïnal faith ,voulcl be sufficient? Show the insuffi- 
ciency of a n1ere nonlÏnal faith froll1 his own state- 
lnent in another passage? (Ronlans ii. ] 3.) "\Vhat 
does St. J anIes say of faith without "Torks? (St. 
J allles ii. 20.) 1Vhat ,vas the particular error 
against ,vhich St. Paul wrote in his Epistle to the 
Galatians 3 ? 1Yhat was the opposite error against 
,vhich St. Janles appears to have ,vritten 4? Is 
there any inconsistency between them? For ex- 
anIple; By Ineans of ,vhat "Tas the thief on the 
cross justified 
 'Vhat proof did he give of his 
repentance and faith? 1Vhat ll1ust he have done 
had he Ii vcd ? 
Evidence from A ntiquity.- 'Vas the doctrine of 
this Article that of the early Christians? 'Vhat is the 
testinlony of Clenlent of Ron1e 5? Of Polycarp 6 ? 

1 An atonement. A means of reconciliation. 
2 Gratuitously; without being earned. 
3 That of seeking justificati0n by the works of the law. 
4 That of supposing that faith alone was sufficient. 
T.-" 'Ve are not justified by ourselvcc;,neither by our 
own wisdom, or knowledge, or piety, or works that we have done 
in the holiness of our hearts; but by that faith by which God 
Almighty has justified all men from the beginning." (Clem. Ep. ad 
Corintlt. c. 32.) 
6 POLYCARP.-" Y e are saved by grace, not by works, but by 
the will of God, thruugh Jesus Christ." (So Polycarp. ad Phil. 



Of Good TVorks. 
Albeit that Good \r orks, which are the fruits of 
Faith, and follow after Justification, cannot put away 
our sins, and endure the severity of God's Judgment; 
yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, 
and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith; 
insomuch that by them a lively fhith may be as evi- 
dently known as a tree discerned by the fruit. 

De Bonis Operibus. 
Bona opera, quæ sunt fructus fidei, et justificatos 
sequuntur, quanquam peceata nostra expiare, et divini 
judicii severitatem ferre non possunt; Deo tamen 
grata sunt, et accepta in Christo, atque ex vera et 
viva fide necessario profluunt, ut plane ex illis æque 
fides viva cognosci possit, atql1e arbor ex fruetu 
j udicari. 

What is the history of this Article I '? ...\.gaillst 
hat two errors does it appear to be directed 2 1 
'Vhat are the propositions contained in it 3 '? 
'Vhat do you nleall w"hen you say that good 
,yorks cannot put a"vay sins 4 1 "\Vhy cannot they 
cndure the severity of God's judgnlent 5 1 Ho,v 
does Isaiah describe the righteousness of n1an '? 

I It did not exist in tho::,e of Eùward VI. 1552; but was added 
in 15G2. 
2 That of the Romallists, who hold that good works are meri- 
torious; and that of the Antinomians and others, who hold that 
faith only is sufficient. 
3 (I) That good works cannot put away sin, or endure the 
severity of God's judgment; (2) 'rhat tIH'Y are nevertheless 
pleasing; (3) They are pleasing throug-h Christ's merits; 
(4) They spring necessaril)' from a lively faith. 
4 The)' cannot expiate them. 
6 Because they are not perfect. 



(lxiv. 6.) Ho\v is the sanle truth asserted by Job? 
(ix. 30, 31.) By the Psalmist? (cxxx. 3.) By 
St. Jall1cs? (Janles iii. 2.) 
On what grounds of reason 11light we infer that 
good works are pleasing to God I? \Vhat exhort- 
ation does Christ give ,vith regard to good works 
Iatt. v. 16.) If God is glorified, ,vhat 111ay ,ve 
conclude 2? 'Vhose workmanship does St. Paul 
declare Christians to be? (El)hes. ii. 10.) For 
what })urpose are they created in Christ Jesus? 
What did St. Paul desire Titus to "affirnl con- 
stantly ?" (Titus iii. 8.) How are Christians to 
please tll e Lord? (Coloss. i. 10.) 
It appears then that good ,yorks have no nlerit, 
and cannot endure the Divine scrutiny; but theJ
are nevertheless pleasing to God. Through whonl 
are they pleasing? In ,vhom are Christians 
created unto good works? (Ephes. ii. 10.) When 
are they thus created 3? By virtue of what then 
are their good ,yorks acceptable to God 
 ? In 
whose does St. Paul adlnonish the Colossians 
to do all things? (iii. 17.) 
Fronl what do these good ,yorks necessarily 
spring? From ,vhat kind of faith? To ,vhat 
faith is this opposed 5? Ho,v is the goodness of 
a tree known? IIo,v is the nature of a Christian's 
faith known? By what does St. Paul say faitb 

1 Because God commands them to be done, and requires them 
as necessary to salvation. 
2 That He is pleased. 3 J n their baptism. 

 By virtue of their admission into the Christian covenant. 
5 A dead or heartless faith. 



,vorketh? (Gal v. G.) 'Vhat does St. John say 
of him ,vho sa)"'s he loves God, and keeps not his 
conlnlandnlents? (1 John ii. 4.) 
Evidence jj'om Antiq1.lity.-In ,v}lat ternlS does 
St. Cyril speak of the inlpcrfection of good works 1 ? 
I-Io\v does tT ustill 
Iartyr sho,v tIle necessitJ" of 
good works 2? 110"'" docs St. Chr
"'sostonl connect 
faith and good ,,"'orks 3? 


Of Trorks before Justification. 
,y orks done before the grace of Christ, and the 
inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God, for- 
nluch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, 
neither do they make Inen Ineet to receive grace, or 
(as the School authors say) deserve grace of congruity: 
yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath 
willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not 
but they have the nature of sin. 
De Operiblls ante Justificationem. 
Opera quæ fiunt ante gratiarn Christi et Spiritus 
ejus affiatum, cum ex fide Jesu Christi non prodeant, 
minime Deo grata sunt, neque gratiam (nt multi vocant) 
de congruo merentur. Imrno cum non sunt facta ut 
Deus ilIa fieri voluit et præcepit, peccati rationem 
habere non dubitalTIus. 

1 CYRIL.-" That which seems to ùe done well by us, cannot 
escape rC'prehension and blame, if it be narrowly searched into." 
2 JUSTIN )!ARTYR.-" Christ hath declared that not they who 
only profess his religion, but they who do the works which He hath 
commanded them, shall be savelL" (Just. :ðfart. Apol. i. c. ]6.) 
3 ST. CHRYSOSTml.-" As soon as ever thou hast believed, thou 
wilt be adorned also with good works." (Chr!Jsost. Sermo de lege 
et fide.) 



What is the subject of this Article 1 \Vhat state 
or condition of man does it refer to? \Vhat does 
it affirn1 ,vith regard to "works done before thp 
grace of Christ, and the inspiration of his Spirit 1 1" 
"\Vhy are they not pleasing to God? 'Yho say 
that such ,yorks deserve grace of congruitJ? 'Vho 
,vere the School authors 2? 'That did they mean 
ùy grace of congruity 3 ? 
On what grounds of reason "yould you infer 
that works before justification are not pleasant to 
God 4? "\Vhat is the natural state of luan since 
the fall? \Vhat follows frotH hence 5 ? Ho,v does 
St. Paul speak of the plan of salvation? (Titus 
iii.4, 5.) 'Yhat does he exclude from having any 
Dlerit to obtain justification? By ,vhat does he 
say that Christians are saved? (Ephes. ii. 8.) 
\Vere those })ersons actually saved at that time? 
'Vhat then? By what then were they put into a 
state of justification? 
\Ve have seen that ,yorks performed before the 

1 (1) That they are not pleasant to God; (2) That they do 
not deserve grace; (3) That they have the nature of sin. 
2 Students in Divinity, who appeared in the eleventh centm'J, 
and stl'o"e to explain Scripture on philosophical principles. 
3 Grace of co't/grllit.1J (gratiam de congruo) means grace which 
it is fair and equitable that a man should recei'"e. The School 
authors devised a theory that by a certain meritorious meetness, 
à p,"iori, for the reception of God's grace, the party claimed it 
de congruo, as that which it was fitting he should r 'ceive ; and that 
having once received it, he might then claim its further extension 
as a right, de co't/digno. 
, All actions are consiJered b
' the Divine Being with reference 
to their 'motires, and unless these be 
ood, the action, however 
outwardly good, cannot be pleasant to God. . 
5 That his works in his natural state must be corrupt. 



grace of Uhrist are not pleasant to God, and do 
not deserve grace. 1Vhat is affirnlcd further ,,'ith 
regard to then1? Repeat 1 John v. 17. Repeat 
Acts xvii. 30. What ,,,"as God pleased to overlook? 
'Vhat do you infer from hence I? "\Vhat does our 
Lord say is fue .work of God? (John vi. 29.) 
Fronl ".hat principle then Blust every ,york proceed 
ill order that it Inay be plcasing to God 2 ? 'V110se 
gift i
 faith ? 
Evidence fro1}
 .A ntiquity.- Was the doctrine of 
this Article that of the early Church 1 In what 
ternlS does St. J el'onle spcak of ","orks before justi- 
fication 3? St. Chrysoston1 4 1 Gregory 5 1 

I That this ignor:mce was sinful, though not punished. 
2 From the principle of faith. 
;$ ST. JER01IE.-" Let us pronounce our sentence against those 
who do not believe in Christ, and ).et think themselves valiant, and 
wise, and tempprate, and just, that they may know that there is 
none can live without Christ, without whom all virtue lies in vice." 
(llieron. in Gal. c. 3.) 
.& ST. CHRYSOST01I.-" You shall find many which have not the 
trne faith, and be not of the flock of Chri8t, and Jet as it appeareth 
the). flourish in good works of mercy ; JOU shall find them full of 
pit)", cOIll})assion, and given to justice; aml ,yet for all that they 
have no fruit of their works, because the chief work lacketh." 
(Chrysost. Samo de .fide, lege, et Spiritll SltJlcto.) 
5 GREGORY.-" If faith be 110t first begotten in our hearts, all 
the other things cannot be good. though they ma)' seem good." 
(Gregor. ...lloral.l. 2. [quoted by Bereridge, vol. ii. p. 42.]) 



Of lrorks of Supererogation. 
V o]l1ntary \Y orks besides, over and above, God's 
Commandments, which they caU \Y orks of Supereroga- 
tion, cannot be taught w1thout arrogancy and impiety: 
for by then1 men do declare, that they do not only 
render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but 
that they do more for his sake, than of bounden dnty is 
required: whereas Christ saith plainly, \"hen ye have 
done all that are commanded to you, say, \Ve are 
unprofitable servants. 
De Operibus Sllpere f fogationis. 
Opera ql1æ supererogationis appellant, non possunt 
sine arrogantia et impietate prædicari. N am iHis de- 
cJarant hOlnines, non tantum se Deo reddere quæ 
tenentur, sed plus in ejus gratiam facere quam debe- 
rent; cum aperte Christus dicat, Cum feceritis omnia 
quæcumqne præcepta sunt vobis, dicite, Servi inutiles 

Against what erroneous doctrine is this Article 
directed? What is "the Inealling of the word 81lperr- 
erogation I? Ho,y is this doctrine applied by the 
Church of R0111e 2 ? "\Vhy is it an arrogant doc- 
trine 3? \Vhy is it inlpious 4 ? 
\Vhat are the two propositions denied in this 

1 The performance of more than duty requires. It is thus de- 
rived; from frogo, to carry a law; erogo, to make out an order 
fur mOlH>Y from the treasury, or to pay; super erogo, to pay over 
and abuve what is due. 
2 It is asserted that Christ did and suffered more than was 
necessar)", and that the saints have done the same; and that this 
surplus of merit is placed at the pope's disposal, to dispense for 
remissiun from pur
atorJ, by indulgences. 
3 Because it exalts human merit. 
, Because it takes away frum the honour of Christ. 



Article 1 1 Quote a passage frolll Scripture to dis- 
prove the first? (Luke xvii. 10.) "\Vhat passage 
disproves the second 1 (Psahn xlix. 7.) 
By \vhat method of rea
olling has it been 
attenlpted to establish this error 2 ? Is there any 
ground for such distinction in Scripture? IIo,v 
11luch obedicnce do the }uOece})ts of the Bible re- 
quire 1 IIo,v i::; the moral law sunl11led up by 
Christ 1 For ""hose use ,vas the Lord's prayer 
designed? What do \ve pray to be forgiven in 
that prayer 1 "\Vhat are our sins called in the 
Lord's prayer as recorded hy St. 
Iatthe,v3 1 But 
if Christians lnust pray daily for forgiveness of 
their deLts, can they have any surplus nlerit? When 
Christ required the young 1l1an to sell all that he 
had, \\"as it optional \vith him whether he \vould 
do so or not? "\Vas that charge a precept, or only a 
counsel? "That 1110ral evil results fro III this doc- 
Does it appear fron1 Scripture that there ,,-ill be 
differences of re,va.rds hereafter 5 ? "\Vas this the 

1 (1) That a man is able to do more than is neces
ary for his 
own salvation; (2) 'fhat he is able to transfer the merit of the 
surplus to others. 
2 By making a distinction between the precepts and the counsels 
of religion ; the former being asserted to be necessary, and the 
latter only 'roluntary. 
3 DeLts. 
, It tends to damp our ardour in the pursuit of holiness, from 
the idea that we may have already gained merit enough, and there- 
fore need strive no mure. 
5 It is expressly declared that God will reward everyone 
according to his works. The same thin
 is also implied in tbe 
parable of the pounds, and in ] Cor. xv. 41,42. 



yie,v of the early Christians I? Does this doctrine 
give any countenance to that of Supererogation 2? 
Evidence jrofut A ntiquity.- 'Vhen ,vas the doc- 
trine of"\V orks of Supererogation first held 3? Is 
the testill10ny of the early Church decisive against 
it? "\Vhat is the language of St. Basil 4? St. 
Cyprian 5? St. Augustine 6 ? 


Of Christ alone without Sin. 

Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto 
us in all things, sin only except, from which he was 
clearly void, both in his flesh, and in his spirit. He 
came to be the Lamb without spot, who, by sacrifice of 
himself once rnade, should take away the sins of the 
world; and sin, as Saint John saith, was not in him. 
But all we the rest, although baptized, and born again 
in Christ, yet offend in many things; anù if we say we 
have no sin, we deceive ourselves, anù the truth is not 
In us. 

1 "It has heen the ancient and constant tradition of the Church, 
testified by the unanimous consent of all the Fathers." (Jos. Jiede, 
Sermon on .Jfatt. x. 4).) 
2 None whatever, because the reward of the gl.eatest saint is 
a reward of grace, aud not of debt. 
S In the 12th century. 
4 St. R.\STL.-" He that cannot make satisfaction, or propitiate 
God for his own sins, how can he do it for anuther 
" (Basil in 
Psalm 48.) 
.-" 'Ve ought not to glory in any thing, since 
nothing is our own." (Cyprian. Testim. J. iii. c. 4.) 
E.-" Brethren may die for brethren, Jet the 
blood of any martyr is not poured out for the forgiveness and 
remission OÍ their brethren's sins,as He did for us." (.Aug. in Jok. 
Tract 84.) 

D 2 



De Christo, qui solus est 

ine peccato. 

Christus in nostræ naturæ veritate, per omnia similis 
factus est nobis, excepto peccato, a quo prorsus erat 
immullis, turn in carne, tUBl in spiritu. Venit ut agnus, 
absque Inacula, qui l1nmdi peccata per irnmolationen1 
sui semel factan1 tolleret,et peccatulTI (ut inquitJohannes) 
in eo non erat; sed nos reliqui etiam baptizati, et in 
Christo regenerati, in l1ntltis tamen offendimus orones. 
Et si dixerirnus, quod peccatum non habe111us, nos 
ipsos seducimus, et veritas in nobis non est. 

What is the subject of this Article? 'Vhat do 
you nlean by " the truth of our nature I?" 'Vhat 
i::; nlcant by being" clear1y void 2?" 'Vhat kind of 
sin is here intended 3? Who are nleant by " all ,ve 
the rest' ?" 
There are t,vo asscrtions in this .Article. 'Vhat 
are they 5 ? 
The sinlessness of Ch'rist.-For what pUf})ose 
did Christ conle into the ,yorld? Supposing that 
Christ had bcen guilty of any sin, ,vhat would He 
haye required 6? 'Vhy ,vas Christ miraculously 
conceiycd 7? In ,vhat likeness did God send hi
o,vn Son? (Rom. viii. 3.) For ,vhat purpose? 
Could Christ have condenllled sin, if he had 
been sent in sinful fleS
l? For ,vhat purpose did 
the Father make Him to be sin for us? (2 Cor. 

1 The reality or verity of our nature. " Very man." 
2 Entirely, altogether free. '.rhe Latin is 1 rorsus. 
3 All 
in, original and actual. 
( All mankind; as described in Article IX. 
5 (1) The sinlesslless of Christ, and (2) the sinfulness of rna n 
after regeneration. 
6 A Redeemer. 7 That He might be free from sin. 



Y. 21.) What do 
you nlean by "being lllade sin" 
in this passage 1 ? 'Vhat ,vas it necessary that 
Christ should be, in order that "
e nlight be nlade 
"the righteousness of God in Hilll?JJ 'Vhat was 
the Paschal Lalllb? 'Vhy was it required to 1e 
,yithout bIen1Ísh? 'Vhat do you Inean by a type? 
How do you kno,v that the Paschal Lanlb ""as a 
type of Christ 2? 'Vhat is the testinlony of St. Peter 
to this point? (1 Pet. i. 19.) 'Vhat is our Lord's 
o,yn testimony as to his own sinlessness? (John 
yiii. 46.) llow is this truth asserted by St. John? 
(1 John iii. 5.) 
This Article asserts that Christ w'as entirely free 
fronl sin, both in his flesh and in his spirit. Is 
this distinction observed in Scripture? (2 Cor. 
vii. 1.) 'Vhat are sins of the flesh 3 ? 'That does 
St. Paul say of fornication? (1 Cor. vi. 18.) 1Vhat 
do you lllcan by being peccable j ? "\Vas Christ 
pecca ble 5 ? 
The sinfulness of'lnan after regeneration.- Frolll 
the Old Testanlent. Ho,v does 8010nlon speak of 
the tendency of Ulan to sin? (1 I\:ings viii. 46.) 
 is Abraham described? (2 Chron. xx. 7.) Did 
Abrahanl offend notwithstanding? (Genesis xx.) 
'Vhat was the sin of 
Ioses ? 

1 A sin offering; an atonement for sin. 
2 John i. 2H. 
3 Sins in which the body is especially concerned, as intempe- 
rance, lust, &.c. 
inR of the spirit are those in which the mind is 
especially concerned, as pride, revenge, &c. 
· Liable to sin. 
å Xo; lIe was entirely free from all sin, and all tendency to 
sin, eiÙlel' of bod)' or milHl. 

D 3 



Fronl the N e,v Te
talnent. What is the testi- 
mony of St. J an1es to this point? ( James iii. 2.) 
Of St. John? (1 John i. 8.) How does St. Paul 
confess his sinfulness 1 (1 Tin1. i. 15.) 'Vhy did St. 
Paul withstand St. Petcr to his face at Antioch? 
(Gal. ii. 11.) 'Vhat is the character given in St. 
Luke of Zacharias and his wife? (Luke i. 6.) 8ho,y 
from ,vhat follo\vs that Zacharias ,vas not cntirely 
free from sin I? (verse 20.) 'Vhat petition in the 
Lord's prayer implicb the tendency of nlan to sin? 
SOine persons have supposcd that those who are 
regenerate are entirely free fron1 sin. On 'v hat 
passage of Scripture has this opinion Leen founded? 
(1 John iii. 9.) How do you understand the ex- 
pression" he cannot sin 2?" 'Vhy do you conclude 
that this is St. J 011n's n1eaning 3 ? Other persons 
have supposed that the regcnerate do sin, but that 
it i
 no sin in then1. On ,vhat Scriptur<> passage 
is this error built? (Ronl. viii. 1.) IIo"," is the 
statell1ent in the first clause of this text qualified 
in the second? 'Vhence llave these and sin1Ïlar 
errors arisen f ? 
Evidence frorn .A ntiq'llity.- What is the testi- 
Inony of J usÛn 
Iartyr to the sinlessness of Christ 5 ? 

1 He disbelieved the message of the angel, and wa
with dumbness. 
2 He cannot sin wilfully and habitua1Jy. 
3 Because the same Apostle says (i. B)," If we S
lY that we 
have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us." 
f From interpreting too absolutely particular passages, instead 
of comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 
5 J rSTIN .MARTYU.-" That t..ll]Y ullreproyable just man." 
(Just. Dialog. cum Tryph.) 




Of Cyril of Alexandria I? Of Augustine 2? IIow 
does Clement of ...1.lexandria speak of the sinfulness 
of man 3 ? 


Of Sin after Baptism. 

Not every deadly sin willingly committed after 
Baptism is sin against the Holy Ghost, and unpardon- 
able. "Therefore the grant of repentance is not to be 
denied to such as faU into sin after Baptism. After 
we have received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from 
grace given, and fall into sin, and by the grace of 
God we may arise again, and amend our Ii Yes. And 
therefore they are to be condemned, which say, they 
can no more sin as long as they Ii ve here, or deny the 
place of forgiveness to such as truly repent. 

De Peccato post Baptismum. 
Non omne peccattun mortale post Baptisl1ulm vol un- 
tarie perpetratum est peccatU1ll in Spiritum Sanctum, 
et irrenlissibile. Proinde Iapsis a Baptismo in peccata, 
locus pænitentiæ non est negandus. Post acceptum 
Spiritum Sanctum POSSUIllUS a gratia data recedere 
atque peccare, denuoque per gratiam Dei resurgere ac 

1 CYRIL.-" Christ was the first and the .only man upon earth 
that did not commit sin, neither was guile found in his mouth." 
(Cyril. de 'recta fide.) 
E.-" Perhaps it is not without cause, that when we 
often find in 
cripture that men are said to be 'icttllOut com- 
plaint, we can finù none said to he without Sliu, but tha t one alone 
of whom it is openly said, llim 'lJ:/w did not knoll' sin." (Aug. de 
nat. et gmt.) 
\LEX o\XDRIA.-" The ,V ord alone is without sin; 
for to sin is natural and common to all." (Clcm. .Alex. Pædagog. 
1. 3. c. ult.) 

D 4 



resipiscere; ideoque illi damnandi sunt qui se, quamdin 
hic vivant, amplius non posse peccare affirmant, aut 
vere resipiscentibus veniæ locum denegant. 

"\Vhat is the subject of t.his Article? "\Vhat are 
nleant by deadly sins I? What may,ve infer frolll 
the exprcssion ' not every deadly sin " is unpar- 
donable 2 ? 'Vhat is the difference behvcen the 
assertion of this Article, and that of the last, ,vith 
regard to the tendcncy of luan to sin 3 ? 1Vhat is 
nlean t by the place of forgiyeness 4 1 
There are three at:scrtions in this Article- 
(1) That nlan may fall from grace after Baptism. 
(2) That he cannot be assured that he shall not 
(3) That he 11lay rise again. 
J.lfan 1nay fall from grace after Baptisrn.-1Vhat 
may'yc infer fronl the nUInerous exhortations, &c. 
of Scripture to perseverance 5? Ho\v does St. 
Paul speak of his liability to fall? (1 Cor. ix. 27.) 
In the parable of the seed so,vn, sonle fell upon 
the rocky ground; ,vhat becanle of it after it had 
sprung up? 'Vhat do JOU infer 1 Against ,,,,hat 

1 In one sense every sin is fleadly ; but deadl)" sins here mean 
kno'lCn and deliberate sins, as opposed to sins of ignorance or 
2 That a sin may be a deadly sin, and Jet not the sin against 
the HolJ Ghost, the only one which is declared to be unpardonable. 
3 The last Article asserted this-that tltrouglt tlte 'rem,aining sin- 
fulness of nature 'we must commit sin aßer bapti$lJl; this a
that a Ulan may commit Ún after baptism, ami yet JUJt be finally lost. 
4 The Latin version is locus 'l:elliæ, in allusion to the ancient 
practice of assigning a particular place in the Church to penitents; 
it means tlte grant of forgiveness. 
:i Our liability to fall. 



does St. Paul caution the Corinthian Christians in 
1 Cor. viii. 9? 'Vhat does he say might be the 
result of their conduct? (yerse 11.) 1 On ,vhat 
condition is it asserted that Christians are the 
housp of Christ? (Heb. iii. 6.) Repeat Hob. vi. 
4-6. 'Vhat does St. Paul affinn Inight happen 
to the enlightened? In whom has God no plea- 
sure 1 (IIeb. x. 39.) What was tIle Divine 
threatening to the Church at Ephesus 1 (Rey. ii. 5.) 
What is Ineant by the candlestick? 'Vhat do JOU 
infer 2 1 Show that this is the yie\v of the Church 
in her services 3. 
Sonle persons have supposed that 111an ('annot 
fall from grace given. 'Vhat is this opinion 
called f 1 Supposing a Christian falls after grace 
has been given to hiln, does this in1ply any change- 
ableness on the part of God? Where does the 
fault lie? Repeat )Iatthe'y xxiv. 24. \Yhat is 
meant by the expression" if it ,vere possible 5 1" 
Christ prayed for his disciples. Do these prayers 
imply the certainty of their continuing in grace? 
For whom did our Lord pray that his faith n1Ìght 
not fail? (Luke xxii. 32.) Did S1. Peter's faith 

1 The Greek word is å7roÀ.:iTat; and the passage therefore 
imp1ies that a brother Christian might be finally lost. 
2 That the whole Church of Ephesus might fall. · 
3 Burial S('rrice.--" Suffer us nut at our last hnur for any pains 
of death to fall Ji'úm thee." Collect for Second Sunday ill .A.drent 
-" That we ma) embrace and era hold fa:-t the blessed hope of 
everlasting life." Cullect for grace-" Grant that this day \\ e fall 
into no sin." 
4 Fillal persercrance. 
5 That they wouid use every endeavour (as in Acts xx. 16). 
D 5 



fail afterwards 1 (verse 57.) Supposing that those 
,vho have received grace were secure against 
fa1ling, ,,,hat alteration ,yould be Dlade in their 
present condition 11 'Vhat do you nlean by 
a state of proùation? Repeat ROluans xi. 29. 
'Vhat are the 
 and calling of God, of 
,yhich St. Paul speaks 21 Repcat 2 Cor. i. 22. 
What do you understand Ly a scal 3? ",Yhat by an 
earnest '1 'Vhat is the nature of the seal and 
earnest given to Christians 51 Whcn is it given 
to thenl 6 ? How' lllay it be forfeited? (1 Thess. 
v. ] 9.) To what are Christians begotten again? 
(1 Peter i. 3.) 'ViII this hope brighten in the 
n1Ïnds of true Christians as they advance in 
grace 7 ? 
A Christian cannot be assured that he shall not 
fall so as to lose heaven.-The angels ,vere placed 
in a state of probation. Did they fall 1 (Jude, verse 
6.) Did the Jews fa1l? 'Vhat may be inferred ,vith 
regard to Christians 1 (1 Cor. x. 12.) 'Vhat is St. 
Paul's caution to the ROlllan Christians 1 (Rom. 
xi. 20.) IIo\y does he exhort the Philippians to 
,york out thcir salyation 1 \Vhy with "fear and 

1 They would no l()n
er lip in a state of probation. 
2 His choice of the Jewish nation to be his people, owing to his 
love for them, which was still continued. 
3 A seal is that which testifies a contract, which is void if both 
parties do not keep it. 
4. An earliest is money given:1s a pledge for the rest of the price, 
which may be forfeited. 
5 l'he gift of the Holy Ghost. 6 In their Imptism. 
7 The hope of a true Christian will certainly increase. St. Paul 
speaks with full assurance of hope as the time uf his ùeparture 
draws nigh. It is unlikely that a Christian who has long perse- 
vered will fall. 



trenlùling I?" Repeat IIeb. xii. 28. "\Vhat is the 
Greek \yord translated" godly fear 2 ?" lIo,,
St. Peter exhort us to pass the tilue of our sojourn- 
ing here? (1 Peter i. 17.) Show that the fear of 
falling is designed to preserve from falling. (J er. 
xxxii. 40.) How \yere the Hebrews to arriye at a 
full assurance of hope? (Heb. vi. 12.) Repeat Heb. 
x. 22. Ho,v is the expression "full assurance 
of faith" qualified in the next verse? (yer. 23.) 
What is nleant by the expression full assurance, 
in tllese passages 3 ? 
A Christian having fallen may {rise again.- 
\Vhat is the condition on which forgiveness is 
pron1Ïsed by Christ? (
Iatt. vi. 14.) \Vhat is 
the design of the parable of the prodigal son 4 ? 
What privilege did our Lord convey to his Apostles 
in John xx. 
3? 'Vhat ,vas St. Peter's ad yice to 
Sinlon? (....\cts viii. 22.) "\Vhat did this advice 
imply 5 ? 1Vhat was the punishnlent inflicted by 
St. Paul on the incestuous person 6? (1 Cor. v. 5.) 
What direction did St. Paul give with regard to the 
sanle person afterwards \vhen he repented 7 ? (2 Cor. 

1 Because they had a work to perform which they could not 
do of themselves, and beca.use the grace of God was not irre- 
2 EVÀáßHa; which means cautiun, implying danger. 
3 The Greek word in this is 7r'-.7J(JCllþof,Í,n-. The metaphor 
is that of a vessel borne along at full sail, and does nut imply 
4 To encourage sinners to repentance. 
5 That his sin, though great, might Jet be forgiven. 
6 ExcommunicatiuIl. 
7 '1'0 receive him back again into the Church. 
D 6 



ii. 6, 7.) Repeat 1 John iii. 6. 'Vhat kind of sin 
does the Apostle speak ofl1 Repeat Hob. yi. 4-6. 
'Vhat is the sin of \vhich the Apostle speaks 2 ? 
IIo\v is this sin further described in Heb. x. 261 
1Vhat w'ere its aggravating CirCU111stances 3? 'Vhat 
docs the Apostle say,vith regard to such persons? 
How doc::; the general tenor of Scripture require 
us to understand the tenn "ilnpossible" in this 
passage 41 'Vhat warning is conyeyed in these 
,yords to all Christians 5 1 'Vhat appears to have 
been the sin against the IIoly Ghost 61 How' 
may that sin be inlitatecl 7 1 For ,vhat kind of sin 
does St. John forbid prayer to be lnade 1 (I John 
v. 16.) 
Evidence Jì'OTll Antiq1tity.- 'Vhen \"as the doc- 
trine of final perse\Terance first introduced 8 1 1Vho 
,vas Noyatiall 9? IIo\v \vas his teaching opposed 

1 'YiIful and habitual sin. 
2 Apostas,y. 
3 They had tasted the heavenly gift, ð.:c. 
4 Extremdy difficult, though not beJond the reach of his grace, 
with whom all tllings are possible. "This impossibility," says 
Bishop Taylor, " concerns not those that return and confess Christ, 
but those that wilfully and maliciously reject thi8 only way of sal- 
vation, and never return to the confession of it again." (Bishop 
Jercm.lJ Taylor on the effect of repentallr-e, 
(\ The extreme danger of sinning wilfully after baving been 
6 Ascrihing to the evil spirit what Christ did by the power of 
the Holy Ghost. 
7 By habitual resistance to the grace of God. 
8 It was not heard of till the end of thp 4th ccntur)". 
9 A learned presbJter of Rome (A.D. 250), who held that those 
who had once fallen should 110t again be admitted into the Church. 
His followers were called Puritans. 



by St. Cyprian I 1 How does Theodoret speak of 
sin after ba ptisnl 2 1 


Of Predestination and Election. 
Predestination to Life is the everlasting purpose of 
God, whereby (before the foundations of the world 
were laid) He hath constantly decreed by his counsel 
secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those 
whom He hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to 
bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as vessels 
made to honour. "Therefore, they which be endued 
with so exce1lent a benefit of God be called according 
to God's purpose by llis Spirit working in due season: 
they through Grace obey the calling; they be justified 
freely: they be made sons of God by adoption: they 
be made like the image of his only-begotten Son Jesus 
Christ: they walk religiously in good works, and at 
length, by God's mercy, they attain to everlasting 
As the godly consideration of Predestination, and 
our Election in Christ, is full of sweet, pleasant, and 
unspeakable comfort to godly persons, and such as feel 
in themselves the working of the Spirit of Christ, 
mortifying the works of the flesh, and their earthly 

.-" But I wonder that there are some so obstinate, 
as not to think that rl'pentance ought to be given to such as are 
fallen, or suppo!"e that pardon should be denit-'d. to penitents, when 
it is written ' Rt:Wt mba 'lfltence t!lOll art fallen, and 'repent, 
and do tlte first 'lforks.'" (Cyþrian. Epist. ad .A Ill01lianum.) 
2 'l'HEODOHET.-" But he that hath attained the gift of baptism, 
calleth God Father, as one that is inserted into the ordfT uf the 
sons of grace. These therefore are commanded to say, Forgire 
us our debts. The wounds, therefore, that are made even after 
Baptism are curable." (See Bereridge, vol. ii. p. 73.) 




11lernbers, and drawing up their mind to high and 
heavenly things, as well because it doth greatly esta- 
blish and confirm their faith of eternal salvation to be 
enjoyed through Christ, as because it doth fervently 
kindle their love towards God: So, for curious and 
carnal persons, tacking the Spirit of Christ, to have 
continually before their eyes the sentence of God's 
Predestination, is a most dangerous downfall, whereby 
· the Devil doth thrust theln either into desperation, or 
into wretchlessness of most unclean living, no less 
perilous than desperation. 
,) Furthermore, we must receive God's prOlnises in 
J stich wise, as they be 
 set forth to us in holy 
cripture: and, in our doings, that "'ill of God is to 
be followed, which we have expressly declared unto us 
in the \Y ord of God. 

De Prædestinatione et EZectione. 
Prædestinatio ad vitam, est æternunl Dei proposi- 
turn, quo ante jacta l1nmdi fundamenta, suo consilio, 
nobis quidern occulto, constanter decre\'it, eos quos in 
Christo elegit ex horninum genere, a maledicto et exitio 
liberare, atque (ut vasa in honorem efficta) per Christum 
ad æternam salutem adducere. Unde qui tal1l præcIaro 
Dei beneficio sunt donati, illi Spiritu ejus, opportuno 
tempore operante, secundum propositurn ejus vocantur, 
vocationi per gratiam parent, justificantl1r gratis, 
adoptantur in filios Dei, unigeniti ejus J esu Christi 
irnagini efficiuntur conformes, in bonis operibus sancte 
anlbulant, et demum ex Dei nlisericordia pertingunt ad 
selllpiternam felicitatem 
Quelnadmodum prædestinationis et electionis nostræ 
in Christo pia consideratio dulcis, suavis, ét ineffabilis 
consolationis est vere piis, et his qui sentiunt in se vim 
Spiritus Christi, facta carnis, et membra, quæ adhuc 
sunt super terram, mortificantem, animnmque ad cæles- 
tia et superna rapienteln: turn quia fidem nostram de 
æterna salute consequenda per Christum plurimum 
stabilit atque confirrnat, turn quia anlorelll nostrum in 
Deum vehemënter accendit; ita hominibus curiosis, 



carnalibl1s, et Spiritu Christi destitutis, ob oculos per- 
petuo versari prædestinationis Dei sententiarn, pernicio- 
sissimum est præcipitium, unde illos diabolus protrudit, 
,.el in desperationem, vel in æql1e perniciosarn impl1- 
}'issimæ vitæ securitatem. Deinde, promissiones divinas 
sic amplecti oportet, ut nobis in sacris literis _ge!!e- 
raliter propositæ sunt; et Dei voluntas in nostris 
actionibus ea sequenda est, quam in verbo Dei habeml1s 
diserte revelatam. 

"\Vhat is the subject of this .I..L\.rticle 1 "\Vhat is the 
literal meaning of the word "predestination 1 1" 
Of" election 2 1" "\Vhyare the words" to life" in- 
serted 3 ? 
This Article contains the follo,ving proposi- 
tions :- 
(1) The meaning of predestination to life. 
(2) A description of those ,vho are predestinated. 
(3) The conlfort arising fronl the godly consi- 
deration of this doctrine. 
(4) The danger arising frolll the inlproper use 
of it. 
(5) The duty of attending strictly to the ,vill of 
God, as lIe has revealed it; and not as our own 
in1aginings nlay lead us to conclude it to be, or to 
conceive of it, in Inatters not revealed. 
\Vhat does this Article affirm "predestination 
to life" to be 1 Repeat Ephes. i. 4
6. Repeat 
2 Tim. i. 9. Speaking then with reference to God, 

I Determination ma(le beforehan(l. 
2 Choiee made according to that determination. 
3 To exclude the doctrine of reprobation. 




"Tho arc the elect I? Show. frotn Scripture tl1a t they 
,vhich be cndued with so excellent a benefit are 
called a.ccording to God's purpose. (Ron1. viii. 
30.) That they are justified freely. (ROlll. iii. 24.) 
That they are nlade the sons of God by adoption. 
(Gat iv. 6, 7.)- That tl1ey are 11lade like the ilnage 
of Christ. (Rom. viii. 
9.) That they ,valk reli- 
giously in good "Torks. (Ephes. ii. 10; 1 Peter i. 
2.) That. they attain at length 1)" God's nlerc
r to 
everlasting felicity. (1 Peter i. 3-5.) 
Are the 111arks of distinction by ,yl1Ïch these per- 
sons are known, such as man can take cognizance 
of2? 8peaking then ,yith reference to man, ,vho 
are the elect 3? "\Vhat assurance has God given of 
his favour tow"ards such persons'? If they perish 
finally, where lies the fault 5? IIow does St. Paul 
COlllfort the Christians at Rome under their suffer- 
ings 6? Does he address the ,vhole body as pre- 
destinated? "\Vhat event is he speaking of in the 

1 Those (known to Goel alone) who either have persevered, or 
will persevere to the end, and be tinall)' saved; the Invisible 
2 "They who are of this society bave such marl;:s and notes of 
distinction from allothers t as are not ohjects unto our sense; only 
unto God w ho 
eeth their hearts, and understandt-th a II t heir secret 
cogitations, unto Him the) are clear and manifest." (lloúker, l. iii. 

 1.) . 
3 The whole Christian societJ', to every member of which eter- 
ual life is uffered in such a manner that he ma)" fall from it and 
perish, )"et it is his own fault if he do. This is e\'ident from the 
Apostolical Epistles, in which the inspired writers address those 
whom they call dect amI pred
:;tillated, as liable to fall. 
4 He has admitted them into the covenant of grace, 
å The fault is tlwir OWll, because they have received "the grace 
of God in yain." (2 Cor. vi. I.) 
6 By assuring them of the certainty of the Di\'Ïne promises. 
(Rom. viii. 18, &.c.) 



9th chapter? "\Yhat is nleant by the expression 
"Jacoù have I loyed," in yersü I3 1 ? How .was the 
prophecy in the 2J th verse of that chapter fulfilled 2 ? 
Repeat Acts xiii. 48. 'Vhat is nleant by being" or- 
dained to eternal life 3? Repeat .A.cts ii. 47. "\Vho 
are nleant by "such as should be sayed 4?" Repea.t 
] Thess. i. 4. Does St. Paul say this of the whole 
body? 'Vhen were the Thessalonian converts 
chosen? "\Yhat evidence had they already given of 
the siucerity of their faith? (I Thess. i. :t) . What 
exhortation is given in 1 Thess. v. 8? 'Yhat reason 
is given in the following verse? (ver.9.) Does this 
reason iUlply the certainty of their salvation 5 ? To 
w.hom is the doctrine of our election in Christ 
full of conlfort? Who are meant ùy" godly per- 
sons 6?" In what two respects is this doctrine full 
of c0111fort to such persons? Sho,v fronl Scrip- 
ture that it establishes their faith. (Ronl: viii. 
33-35.) Show that it kindles their love. (1 John 
iv. ]9.) 
To ,vhonl is the sentence of God's predestination 
a dangerous do\,nfall? Who are 111e<lnt by curious 

1 That it pleased God to select Jacob's posterit), to be his chosen 
reople, in preference to that of Esau. 
2 In the call of the Gentiles. 
3 Being disposed or prepare(l by grace to become Christians. 
4 The Greek is Toì'!: C1W
OJlÉvov!:, which is literally, 'those who 
were being saved.' 
5 Ko: it only implie" that God for his part chosen them to 
be heirs of salvation, provided they on their part woul(l "put on 
the breastplate of faith and love," and so make their caJIing amI 
election bUloe. 
G Those who Ly the grace of God are fulfillinO' the conditions of 
the Christian covenant. ð 



IJersons 1 ? By carnal 1)o1'sons 2 ? 'Vhat do you 
mean by the expression" a downfall 3?" 'Vhat arc 
the w'ays in ,,
11ich Satan lllav tal
e aùvantaO'e of 
.. 1/ b 
such persons 4? 'Vhat do you nlcan by despera- 
tion? By "Tetchlcs.311css 5 ? 
IIo,y are ,ye to receive God's pron1Ïses 6? 'Vhat 
is the precise lllcalling of the word generally in this 
passage 7 ? Against ,vhat persons does this part of 
the Article appear to have been directed 8? What 
,viII of God are ,ve to follo,v in our doings? 'Vhat 
is the revealed will of God? (lsa. Iv. 7. 1 Tin). 
ii. 4. Rev. xxii. 17, last clause, &c.) Can this will 
be contrary to his secret "yill? 1Vhy not 9? What 

1 Inquisitive persons. 2 Sensual persons. 
3 The Latin is præcipitiwn, which shows more clearly the dan- 
gerous position in which such persons are placed. 
, He may cast the inquisitive person who seeks to pry into the 
secret decrees of God, down from thence into desperation, by filling 
him with unreasonaùle and sinful doubts, whether he is one of 
those who in the foreknowledge of God are to he finally saved; or 
he may cast the sensual person down into utter tcretcltll'ssness, by 
leading him to forget that he who is elected to the eud, is elected 
nlso to use the m.eallS bv which that end is to he attained. 
5 The Latin is ::ecw=itas; recklessness or unconcern. " There 
ays Ho"ker, "that elevate too much the urdinary and imme- 
diate means of life, relying wholly upon the hare conceit of that 
eternal Election, which notwithstanding includeth a subordination 
of means, without which we are not í\ctually brollght to enjoy what 
God secretly did intend 
 and therefore to build upon God's elec- 
tion, if we keep not oursdves to the Wit)'S which He hath appointed 
for nwn to walk in, is !Jut a self-deceiving \'anit
,." (Eccles. Pol. 
b. v. 
6 See the Article. 
7 The Latin word is not ,)lerllmqlle, but generalitC1". It might 
thel'efore be rendered genericall.lJ; meaning that the promises uf 
God must he received generally with a reference to the whole collec- 
tive Church of the election. and not with a reference to particular 
individuals. (See Paber's Primitire Doctrine of ElætivlI, p. :{!)O.) 
8 Against those who thought, that though by the plaiu will of 
God all were elected, by his secret will ouly some. 
9 Because God cannot contradict Himself. 



then is your duty and your wisdom ,vith reference 
to tIle doctrinc of your election in Christ? (:2 Peter 
i. ] 0.) \Vhat pron1Ïse is annexed to this exholia- 
tion? (vel'. 10, last cla'Zlse, and ver. 11.) 
Show ho\v the teaching of this .Article corre- 
sponds ,vith other fornnllaries of the Church of 
England 1. 1Vas this the teac1lÎng of the prinlitiye 
Church 2? 

1 In the senice for Infant Baptism, the congregation is directed 
to pray that the child about to be baptized ma)' " eYe[' remain in 
the numbpl' of God's faithful and elect children." In the Catechism, 
the baptized person is taught to express his belief in the Holy 
Ghost who sanctifieth !tim, 
Hld all the elect people of God. Aml in 
the Burial 
ervice there is a prayer that God will be pleased shortly 
to accomplish the number of his elect, and to hasten his kingdom. 
2 CLE)IEXT OF RO'IE.-" l\Iay the all-seeing God, who has 
cted the Lurd J eSllS Christ and us tltrough llim to be a peculiar 
people, gr.lllt, to every soul that callcth upon his great and holy 
Name, faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suffering, temperance, 
holiness, and wisdom." (.E-p. ad Corinth. i. 
_-\TIUs.-" Ignatius, who is also Theophorus, to the Chllrcl
which is in Ephesus of Asia, deserving to be ranked among the 
blessed, blesst'd in the greatness aml fulness of God the Father, 
allrays predesti/lated before tlte zcorlds to glory," &c. (Ep. ad Eplles. 

L-\.RTYR.-" 'Ye Christians are no mere contemptible 
people; but God has also elected us, an(l has become manifest 
to those who enquired not after Him. Through the like calling that 
he called Abralwm, charging him to go out from the land in which 
he dwelt, throu
h that mice he has called all of us." (Just. Dial. 
cum Tryph. Oper. p. 272.) J ustill Mart)"r sa
's also in another 
passage; "But 
'ou will aclmit, when JOu hear the worùs of the 
prophet David, that God the Father of all things was to take up 
Christ to heaven after his re
urrection frum the dead, and there 
to keep Him, until He should ha\'e smitten down tIle evil spirits 
that hate Him, and till the number of good and yirtuous, fore- 
knotcn to llim, slwuld be accomplished, for whose salies He hath 
not Jet brought on the conflagration." (Apolog. i. 
CLDIEXT OF ALEXA:"iDRIA.-" There is only one ancient and 
Catholic Church, which collects together unto the unit)" of one faith, 
by the will of one God, through one Lord, those already ordained, 
1rlwilt God ltas predestinated." (Clem. Alex. Strom.) 



"\Vhat caution is necessary ,yith regard to the 
subject of this Article 1 ? 

....i\.RrrICLE XVIII. 

Of obtaining eternal Salvation only by the name of Christ. 
They also arc to be had accursed that presume to 
say, That every man shall be saved by the Law or Sect 
which he }>lofesseth, so that he be diligent to franle 
his life according to that Law, and the light of Nature. 
For holy Scripture doth set out unto us only the NatTIe 
of Jesus Christ, whereby men must be saved. 

De speranda æterna salute tantum in nomine Christi. 
Sunt et illi anathematizandi, qui dicere audent unum- 
quemque in lege aut secta qualTI profitetnr esse ser- 
vandum, lTIodo juxta illam et lumen naturæ accurate 
vixerit, cum sacræ literæ tantum Jesu Christi nomen 
prædicent, in quo salvos fieri homines oporteat. 

1 "Let us never think it safe to presume of our own last end 
Ly bare conjectural collectioIls of his first intcnt anù purpose, the 
mealls failing that should come between." (lIook /', llook v. 
I "
h we cannot fully resolve the difficulty, we notwith- 
 without distrust should adhere to those positive and plain 
declarations, whereby God representeth Himself seriously designing 
and earnestly desirin
 that all men should come to the knowledge 
of the truth; that none should perish, but that all !-Ihould come 
to repentance; not doubting but his declared mind and his 
idellce, although \\ e cannut thoroughly discern or explain their 
consistency, do Jet really and fully conspire." (Barrow, vol. iii. 
I). 411. Ed. IG92.) 
· " If you will take m)' advice, withdraw your minds from a curious 
search into this myster
., and turn thcm directly to the study of 
piety, and It due rev('}'ence to the awful majesty of God. Think 
and speak of God and his secrets with fear and trembling, but dis- 
llute very little ahout them: and, if you would not undo y()ur
beware of disputing' with Him. If .r(lU trans
rcss in any thing, 
hlame yourselves; if JOu do an,}" good, or repent of evil, offer 
thanksgiving to God." (Leighton, Lect. x., Ufthe Decrees of God.) 



''"'"hat is the subject of this ..Article 1 ....\gainst 
what error is it directed 1 "\Vhat does it say of 
persons who }lold this error 1 What is llleant by 
bcing "had accursed 1 1" "\Vhat appears to have 
been tIle ùcsio-n of this Articlc 2 1 "\Yhen ,vas this 
error first taught 3 ? On ".hat ground did the 
heathen orators of that period defend Paganism 4 ? 
Where else is this error lllaintained 5 1 
'Vhat does the anathenla of this Article pre- 
suppose 6 1 How does it affect a heathen who has 
never heard of Christ 7 1 But is such a person 
under no la'y? By ,vhat law' ,vill he he judged? 
(Rolll. ii. 1
.) But suppose that person has had 
the religion of Christ proposed to his acceptance, 
llo,v is his condition altered 81 "\Vhat ,vas the 
character of Cornelius before his conversion 1 
(Acts x. 2.) To ,,,,hat la,y was he suLject at that 
time? To what la,v did he becollle subject after- 
,vards? 1Vas it a great gain to Cornelius to be 
adn1Îtted into the Christian covenant 9 1 Ho,v do 

1 The word in the Latin version of the Article is c: anathemati- 
zandi," which means literall)' persons to be set apart, or excommuni- 
2 To show that it is not a matter of indifference whether men 
embrace the Gospel or not. 
3 In the fourth centur.r, by the advocates of Paganism, aaainst 
the Christian Emperors. ð 
4 On the ground that God was more honoure(l by beiuO' wor- 
shipped in many different wa)"s. 0 
5 III the Alcoran, which declares that all re]iglUns are equalJy 
acceptable to God. 
6 That tlte religion of Christ has been uffered, but rejected. 
7 It does not apply to his case. 
II From that time he is amenable to the law of Christ. 
9 Yes; ill whatever degree the Christian state surpasses that 
of the heathen. (See Rom. x. 14, 15.) 



the circun1stances of his conversion attest the truth 
asserted in this .Article I? Repeat ::\Iark xvi. 16. 
'Vhat do these ,vo1'ds pre-suppose 2 ? Sho,v this 
fronl St. Paul. (Ron1. x. 14.) 
I[ow. does IIoly Scripture set out to us the 
method of salvation 1 (John xiv. 6.) IIo,v is this 
truth attested by S1. Peter? (Acts iv. 12.) ",Vhat 
two things are inlplied in these ,vords 3 ? To all, 
then, to ,vhom the religion of Christ is ofFered, 
what alternative ren1ains'? '''hat practical en- 
quiry does this suggest to Christians 5 ? ",Vhat 
caution does St. Paul give on this point? (2 Tim. 
ii. 19.) 
Evidence from A ntiquity.- 'Vhat is the testi- 
1110ny of St. Ignatius to the truth asserted in this 
Article 6 ? Of the Author of the Epistle to 
Diognctus 7 ? Of I1'enæus 8 ? Of St. Cyprian 9 ? 

1 ,V e ma
. infer that all religions are not equal, from the pains 
which were taken to bring about his conversion. 
2 That the gospel has first been preached. (See tlte TfTse before.) 
3 That there is salvation to be found in Christ, and in none but 
Christ. 4 There is no alternative but to embrace it. 
5 'Vheth('r they sincerely believe and trust in Christ. 
6 ST. IG:\'ATIl'S.-" Let no man be deceived; even the heavenly 
beings, and the glorious order of angels, and the invisible as well 
as ,ri
ible powers, unless the)' believe in the efficacy (If the blood of 
Christ, are oblioxious to Judgment." (S. 1!Jllat. ad Smyrn. 
7 "In whom is it possible for us sinful and ungodly persons to 
be ju
tified, bu t only in the Son of God?" (Ep. ad Diognet.) 
Æus.-" The,}. who know not (i. e. acknuwledge not) Him 
who is of the Virgin, even Emmanuel, are bereft of his gift, which 
is life eternal." (L. iii. c. 19. 
g ST. CYPRIAN.-" There is no coming to the Father, but by hi
Son J t'sus Chri
t. as appears from what He says in the Gospel 
according to St. John, , I am the way, and the truth, and the life; 
no man cometh unto the Father but by me.'" (Cyprian. Testim. 
ad Quirin. l. 3. c. 24.) 


P .L\ R T I\T. 




Of the Church. 
THE ,,'isible Church of Christ is a congregation of 
faithful men, in the which the pure 'Y ord of God is 
preached and the 
acraments be duly ministered 
according to Christ's ordinance in all those things that 
of necessity are requisite to the same. 
As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, 
have erred: so also the Church of Rome hath erred, 
not only in their living and manner of Cerenlonies, but 
also in matters of Faith. 

De Ecclesia. 
Ecclesia Christi visihilis est cætus fidelium, in quo 
verbum Dei purum prædicatur, et sacramenta, quoad 
ea quæ necessario exigantur, juxta Christi institutum 
recte administrantur. Sicut erravit Ecclesia Hierosoly- 
mitana, Alexandrina, et Antiochena; ita et erravit 
Ecclesia Romaua, non solum quoad agenda, et cære- 
moniarum ritus, verum in his etiam quæ credenda sunt. 

How is the visible Church defined in this 
Article? "\Vhy is it called t'

sible I? "\Vbat are 
the tests by ,vhich the visible Church may be 
known? Against ,,
hat clainl on the part of the 

1 Because it is that which can be seen by man; and to distin- 
guish it frum the Invisible Church. 



Church of ROBle is the latter part of this Article 
directed 1 ? 
The Church.-What is the literal meaning of 
the "rord Church 2 ? 'Vhat \vord is used to repre- 
sent the Church in Scripture 3 ? Is that the word 
used in thi. Article? To ,,
hat \yas the \vord 
ecclesia originally applied 4 ? Is this "Tord used 
in different senses in Scripture 5? In \vhat sense 
is it used in Acts xix. 39? In \vhat sellse in 
s ii. 12? In \vhat sense in 1 Cor. xi. 18? 
In \vhat sense in 1 Cor. i. 2, and in ..Acts xv. 41 ? 
In \yhat scnse in Ephes. i. 2
, 23? In ,,,"hat 
sellse is it used in the first part of thi
 Article 6 ? 
In \vhat sensc in the second 7? 
Thc Church is called vis.ible to distinguish it 
fronl the invisible Churcll. "\Vhat do you lllcan 
by the invisible Church 8 ? The visible Church is 

1 The claim of infallibility. 
2 The Greek word is ICvpLalCrì, derived from ICVPLO!;, and it means 
the Lorù's House. 
3 Ecclesia, from the Greek worùs f.1C and lCa"J\É.w. This word, 
therefore. pr,)perly lllf'ans an assembly or congre!lation; and 
ICvpLainj tlte place of assembly; but the two meanings are often 
4 It originall)' denoted the popular assemblies of the Grecian 
5 The word is used in many different Sf>nses in Scripture. For 
example; in Acts xix. 39, it means a secltlar assembl:lJ; in Heb. 
ii. 12, it means the Jev:ish Chlt1"ch; in 1 Cor. xi 18, it means an 
assembly of Christians; in 1 Cor. i. 2, it means tlte 'lc/tole body of 
Cllristians at Corintlt; in Ephes. i. 22, 23, it means tlte u:lwle body 
of Christians erer.lJlChere. 
6 The whole Christian Society on earth. 
1 The branches of that Society planted in an)" city or country. 
8 The whole family of God in earth and heaven from the hegin- 
ning to the end of the world, known to God alone. The Visible 
Church is that of the called; the Invisible is that of the elect only. 



described as "a congregation offaithful men." \Vhat 
is herc Incant by a Congregation I? Are all the 
melnbers of this Congregation or Society really 
fai thful? \Vhy then are they so called 2? \Vho 
are ever n1Ïngled 'with the good in the visible 
Church? \Vhat parables of our Saviour exelnp1ify 
this truth 3? \Vhat kind of fish 'were drawn up in 
the net? What is represented by the net? How 
did you become a member of the Church? \Vhat 
is required from those ,vho are baptized? 
'Vhat are the two points which are taken as tests 
or standards of the true Church in this Article? 
\Yhat do you mean by the pure Word of God? 
Repeat Acts ii. 42. If o,v many characters of a 
Church are given in that passage? \Vhich of these 
characters are described in this Article? 'Vhy are 
not fellowship and prayers nlentioned 4 ? \Vhat is 
Ineant by preaching 1\ ? \Vhere is the Apostles' 
doctrine to be found 6? \Vhy is not the Sacralnent 
of Baptisnl mentioned in Acts ii. 42 7 ? Ho,v does 
St. Paul refer to both Sacranlents as instruments 
by which ,ve are united to Christ? (1 Cor. xii. 13.) 

1 A Society. 
2 They are at least" faithful men" by profession, just as the 
Church is called Iwly, because holiness is the profession of its 
3 The parables of tlte tares and tlte u:heat, and the net cast into 
the sea. 
4 Because they are no test, being common to all religions. 
1\ Disseminating the Gospel bY'liivá 'Cooe teaching in the congre- 
6 In the Holy Scriptures. 
7 Because these persons had already been baptized. (See verse 




What do you nlean by those things that of necessity 
are requisite to the Sacraments I? "\Vhat, for ex- 
filnplo, are the e::;sential parts of the Sacrament 
of Baptism? Of the Sacrament of the Lord's 
In ,vhat sense is the ,yord Church used in the 
second part of this Article 2 ? Can the Catholic 
truth ever be quite lost out of the Church? Why 
do you infcr t11is 3? l\Iay any particular Church 
err? \Vhat Churches are spoken of as having 
crred? Why are Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alex- 
andria mentioned 4 ? After the destruction of 
J erusalenl by Titus, ,vhich ,vere the three most 
celebrated Churches 5? In what respects does this 
Article affinn that the Church of Ronle hath erred? 
What do you mean by living and matters of faith o? 
Would the Church of Ronle object to being 
classed ,vith other Churches, as in this Article 
Ho,v is the unity of the Church Catholic declared 
ill the Nicone Creed? In ,vhat does this unitv 
consist 71 In ,vhat respects does it differ froln the 

1 Those things which are essential to their due administration. 
2 See page 72, note 7. 
3 Because our blessl.d Lord has promised to be with it to the 
end of the world, and because t]1e Church is "the piHar and 
ground of the truth." 1 rrim. iii. 15. 
4 Because they were the most distinguished of the Churches 
founded by the Apostles. 
[) Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. 
o The Latin is " agenda et credenda ;" i. e. " principles of faith 
and conduct." 
7 Its members have one God and Father, one head, w}1Ïch is 
Christ; one faith, one baptism, one hope of their calling; and they 
endeavour to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 



unity asserted by the Church of Ron1e 1 ? On 
what ground does the Church of Ron1e assert this 
suprcluacy 2 ? Is it quite clear that St. Peter ,vas 
Bishop of Ron1e 3? Repeat l\Iatt. xvi. 18, 19. 
'Vhat was tIle inuuediate occasion of these ,yords 
heing addressed to St. Peter? 'Vhat is the ori- 
ginal nleaning of the w.ord Peter 4 ? In "hat 
sense n1Ïght the Church be said to have been built 
upon St. Peter:l? 'Vere the ,vords in verse 19 
spoken on any other occasion? (l\Iatt. xviii. 18.) 
To "h01l1 were they then addressed? WhJT ,vere 
they addressed in the first instance to St. Peter 
only 6 ? Repeat John xxi. 15. Why was this 
charge repeated three tinles 7 ? 'Vas it intended 

J The Church of Rome asserts that the Catholic Church means 
an the faithful under one visible IlPad, the Bishop of Rome, who 
is the successor of St. Peter, and Christ's ,'icar upun earth. 
2 On the ground that it was given by our Lord to St. Peter 
and to his successors. 
3 It is more probable that he was BisllOP of Antioch. 
.. 4 A stone. 
5 The promise made here was fulfilled, by Christ's using 
St. Peter's ministry in la)'ing the foundation of the Christian 
Church among both Jews and Gentiles; and in his being the first 
preacher to them of that faith, which he here confesses, and 
 the first proselJtes to it; for St. Peter laid the first 
foundations of a Church among the Jews, by the conversion of 
3000 souls, (Acts ii. 41,) who, when they gladly had embraced 
St. Peter's doctrine, were all baptized; and then (verse 47) we 
first find mention of a Christian Church. St. Peter also laid the 
first foundations of a Church among the Gentiles, by dle conver- 
sion of Cornelius and his friends. (Acts x.) :See Bp. Pearson on 
t!te Creed, Art. ix.) 
6 To show the unity of the Church. " 'Vhereas all the rest of 
the Apostles had equal power and honour with St. Peter, Jet 
Christ did particularly give that power to St. Peter, to show the 
unity of the Church which he intended to build upon the founda- 
tion of the Apostles." (Pearson, p. 340. ed. 1(ì69.) 
7 In reference, probably, to Peter's t!tree/old denial. 
E 2 



for St. Peter only 1 ? 1Vas St. Peter present at 
the council held at Jerusalem about the question 
of circunlcisioll? (Acts xv. 7.) \Vho presided at 
that council? (verse 13.) \Vhat do you infer? 
Is any supremacy given to St Peter in Gat ii. 9 ? 
"\Vhat happeneð. afterw"ards? (yerse 11.) Supposing 
that St. Peter ,vas Bishop of Ronle, "
as this supre- 
nlacy conceded to his succe:s
ors? 'Vho opposed 
the supremacy of Victor 2 ? 'Vhen did Pope 
Stephen live 3 ? \Vho opposed his clainl to the 
suprenlacy" ? 'Vhat ,vas conceùed to him by 
Cyprian II? 'Vhen ,vas the clainl first regularly 
Inade to pre-eminence of po,ver 6 ? IIad the 
Church of B,0I11e erred at this tinle? Does this 
Article admit that the Church of l{ome is a part of 
the Church Catholic 7 ? 
Evidence from Antiquity.-Does the definition 
of the Church in this Article agree ,vith those of 
the early Fathers? Ho\v does Clenlent describe the 

1 No; and it was not so understood by St. Peter. (See 1 Peter 
v. 12.) AUGUSTINE.-" \Vhen it was said to Peter, it was said to 
all." (De ago Christiallo, 30, 12.) 
2 Irellæus, Bishop of Lyons. 
3 In the 3rd century. 
4 St. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage. 
5 Cyprian asserted the exclusive rig11t of the Church of Carthage 
to manage its own concerns; though he admitted that where 
different Churches were required to act in concert, he was willing 
to give precedence to Rome, on account of the importance of the 
city; just as in the Church of England, the Bishop of London takes 
precedence, after the Archbishops, for the same reason. 
6 At the end of the Gth century, by Gregory the Great. 
., Yes. But it is a corrupt and an erring portion of the Church 
Catholic, as the Greek Churches are. 



Church I? Ho\v is it described by Origen 2? What 
are the three notes or ll1arks of a true Church, 
according to the Honlily for Whitsunday 3 ? 

Of the Authority of the Church. 
The Church hath power to decree Rites or Cere- 
monies, and authority in Controversies of Faith: And 
yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain any thing 
that is contrary to God's 'V ord written, neither may it 
so expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant 
to another. "Therefore, although the Church be a 
witness and a keeper of holy 'Vrit, yet, as it ought 
not to decree any thing against the same, so besides 
the same ought it not to enforce any thing to be 
believed for necessity of Salvation. 
De Ecclesiæ Auctoritate. 
Habet Ecclesia ritus sive cæremonias statuendi jus, 
et in fidei controversiis auctoritatem; quamvis Ecclesiæ 
non licet quicquam instituere, quod verbo Dei scripto 
adversetur, nec unum Scripturæ locum sic exponere 
potest, ut alteri contradicat. Quare licet Ecclesia sit 
ùivinorum librorum testis et conservatrix, jlttamen ut 
adversus eos nihil decernere, ita præter illos nihil cre- 
dendum de necessitate salutis debet obtrudere. 

T OF ÅLEXANDRIA.-He sa).s," I mean by the Church, 
not a place, but the congregation of the elect." 
2 ORIGEx.-He describes the Church as the assembly of all the 
3 "The true Church is a universal congregation of God's faith- 
ful and elect people, built upon the foundation of the Apostles and 
Prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the head corner stone. And 
it always hath three notes or marks where
) it is known; l)ll1"e 
and sound doct1"ille, the Sacraments ministered ac-cording to Ch,'ist's 
holy institution, and tlte rigltt 1lse of ecclesiastical discipline. This 
description of the Church is agreeable both to the Scriptures of 
God, and also to the doctrine of the ancient Fathers, so that none 
may justly find fault therewith." (Horn. for TVltitsunday, 2nd part. 
[Oxford edition, p. 413.]) 

E 3 



'''11at is the sUQiect of this Article? 1Vhat is 
affirn1cd ,vith regard to the authority of the Church? 
What do you mean by power l? To ,yhat does the 
exprc8sion "controversies of faith" allude 2 ? By 
",.hat rules 111USt the Church be guided in the exer- 
cise of this authority 3 ? 
What is meant by the Church in this Artic1e 4 ? 
Is the Church a S
cicty, or an assembly5? 1\Iention 
one of the marks of a Society 6. 
What are the t,vo points to be proved in this 
Article 7 ? 
Rites and Oeremonies.-- IIad the J e,vish Church 
any rites and ceren10nies not enjoined by l\Ioses S? 
'V ere these ceremonies condemned by our Saviour? 

1 The Latin word is jus, which means rigltt. 
2 Disputes which may arise in the Church from time to time 
on matters of faith. 
3 The Church must ordain nothing contrary to the 'V ord of 
God; it must not so explain one place of Scripture, that it is 
repugnant to another; and it must neitl1er decree any thing 
against the Scriptures, nor enforce any thing as necessary to be 
believed beside the Scriptures. 
, The whole Christian Society on earth. 
5 "The Church is alwaJs a visible Society of men; not an 
Assembl,y, but a Society. For although the name of the Church be 
given unto Christian assemblies, although an)" number of Christian 
men congregated may be termed by the name of a Church, yet 
assemblies properly are rather things that belong to a Church. 
?\-len are assembled for performance of public actions; which 
actions being ended, the assembly di
solveth itself, and is no longer 
in being; whereas the Church which was assembled doth no less 
continue afterwards, than hefore." (IIooker, lib. iii. 
6 It must have regularly appointed officers, and rules for its 
7 That the Church has authority; (1) in ceremonies, (2) in 
matters of faith. 
SIt had several; such as certain forms in observing the Pass- 
over, the service of their S)'nagogues, the feast of Purim, the 
order of 11urial, of marriage, &c. 



'Vhat do you infer 1 What is implied in the ex- 
pression" the giving of the keys 1" Repeat I Cor. 
xiv. 40. What does this direction inlply 1 
Controversies of faith.-Supposing disputes to 
arise in any hUlllan society, must that society have 
authority to settle thenl 1 'Vhen a dispute arose 
in the early Church about the question of circum- 
cision, ho,v ,vas it settled 1 1 What authority did 
St. Paul give to Timothy 1 (1 Tim. i. 3.) 1Vas a 
similar authority given to Titus? (Titus iii. 10.) 
How does our Lord assert the authority of the 
Church 1 (
Iatt. xviii. ] 7.) 
The rules by u'hich the Church m'll$t be guided.- 
In the case of a human society, by what must its 
officers be guided in their management of it 2 1 
For example, by ,vhat law must the visitor of a 
College be guided 31 The Judges of the land'? 
By ,,"hat la,v must the Church be guided 5 1 'Vhat 
is the difference between the authority of the 
Church as to rites and ceremonies, and the same 
authority as to matters of faith tI? 'Vhy may not 
the Church ordain any thing ,vhich is contrary to 
the written ,vord of God 7 1 Repeat Gal. i. '8. Why 
nlay not tlle Church so expound one place of Scrip- 

1 Bya decree of the Church. 
2 BJ the laws of the Societ)'. 
3 By its statutes. 
4 By the laws of the land. 
:; By the Scriptures. 
6 J[atters of .IíÛtll must necessarily be contained in the word 
of God; rites and ceremonies must not be inconsistent with the 
word of God. 
7 See Article VI. 

E 4 



ture, that it be repugnant to another 1 ? The 
Church is a ,vitness and keeper of holy 1Vrit. In 
,vhat respects is the Church a witness 2? In what 
respects a l'eeper S ? On 'what authority do ,ve re- 
ceive the Canon of Scripture? Does the saIne 
pow'er belong to a particular Church as to the 
universal, ,,'ith regard to the settlement of disputes? 
On ,vhat principle are all Articles and Creeds con- 
structed f? Is great respect due to such decisions 
of the Church as are in agreen1ent with the teach- 
ing of this Article 5 ? 
Evidence fro11'
 AntiqU'ity.-Has the Church 
ahvays possessed the authority given to it in this 
Article? What is the testimony of Clemens Ro- 
manus to this point 6? Of Clemens Alexandrinus 7 ? 

1 Because all Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and there- 
fore there must be a perfect consistency and agreement in its 
several parts. 
2 The Church is a witness to its age and authority. 
3 The Church is a keeper or a guardian of Scripture, as a 
College is of its statutes. 
f The principle of Church authority. 
5 "Unto laws thus made and received by a whole Church, they 
which live within the bosom of that Church must not think it a 
matter indifferent either to )'ield or not to Jield obedience. . Is it 
a small offence to despise the Church of God! Jly Son, keep thy 
Father's c.ommandment, saith Solomon, and for:qet not tlty }'Iother's 
instruction; bind them both always about thine heart. It doth Dot 
stand with the duty which we owe to our Heavenly Father, that to 
the ordinances of our :l\Iother the Church we should show our- 
selves disobedient." (Hooker, book iii. 
6 CLEMENS ROl\IANUS.-" 'Ve must do all things in order, what- 
soever the Lord hath commanded us ; to wit, make our pra)"ers and 
oblations at the stated seasons, and not irregularly and bJ chance, 
but at the times and hours appointed." (Ep. 1. 
7 CLE}IENS ALEXANDRJNUS.-" We must not by any means 
whatsoever, transgress the Canon of the Church." (Strom. vii. 



Of St. CJ"prian I? 1Vhat rite or cere1nony was de- 
creed at the council of 
ïce 2? "\Vhat controversy 
faith was settled at that council 3 ? 1Vhat is the 
testimony of St. Cyprian as to the rules by ,yhich 
the Church n1ust be guided 4? Of St. Augustine 5 ? 
Of St. Chrysostom 6 ? 


Of the Authority of General Councils. 
General Councils may not be gathered together 
without the commandment and will of Princes. And 
when they be gatbered together, (forasmuch as they be 
an assembly of l11en, whereof all be not governed with 

1 ST. CYPRIAN.-" Our Lord, whose precepts we ought to fear 
and to observe, when arranging the honour of the Bishop, and the 
administration of the Church, speaks in the Gospel, and saJs to 
Peter, 'I say unto thee, that thou art Peter,' &c. Thence 
through the changes of times and of successions, the ordination of 
Bishops and the administration of the Church has come down, so 
that the Church is built upon the Bishops, and every act of the 
Church is directed by the same overseers." (Cypria,ll. de Lapsis, 
Ep. xxvii.) 
2 The time for celebrating Easter. 
3 The Ariall controversy. 
.-" \Ve must by no means depart from the pre- 
cepts of the Gospel. For we are not to follow the custom of men, 
but the truth of God." (Cyprian. Epist. 63.) 
E.-" 'Vhen the proper words do make the 
Scripture doubtful, we must first have a care that we do not dis- 
tinguish or pronounce wrongly. 'Yhell, therefore, diligence being 
used, it foresees it is uncertain how it should be distinguished or 
pronounced, let him consult the Rule of Faith, which he ma)" per. 
ceive from tlte plainer places of tlte Scriptm'eð, and tlte alttltority of 
tlte rhuTclt." (A71.Q. de doctrinâ Christianá, I. 2.) 
6 ST. CHRYSOSTml.-" But all things that are in the Hol)" 
Scriptures are clear and right; all things necessary are manifest." 
(Chr!Jsost. in 2 Thess. Hom. 3.) 
E 5 



the Spirit and 'Vord of God,) they may err, and some- 
times have erred, even in things pertaining unto God. 
'Vlwrefore things ordained by then1 as necessary to 
salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless 
it Inay be declared that they be taken out of holy 
De auctoritate Conciliorum generalium. 
Generalia Concilia sine jussu et voluntate Principulll 
congregari non possunt; et ubi convenerint, quia ex 
}}ominibus constant, qui non omnes Spiritu et Verbo 
Dei reguntur, et errare possunt, et interdum errarunt 
etiam in his quæ ad Deum pertinent; ideoque quæ ab 
iBis constituuntur, ut ad salutem necessaria, neque robur 
habent, neque anctoritatem, nisi ostendi possint e sacris 
Ii teris esse desumpta. 

What is the subject of this Article? 1Yhat do you 
Inean by a Council 1 ? 1Vhy are the Councils here 
spoken of, called general 2 ? What do you nlean by 
"things pertaining to God 3?" 1Vhat is the earliest 
instance of a Council being asselnbled? (.L\.cts xv.) 
In ,yhat important particular did this Council dif- 
fer fron1 all subsequent ones' ? When do 'we first 
hear of national or provincial councils in Ecclesi- 
astical History 5 ? By 'what nanle ,vere they 
caned 6? What ,vas the first general Council 7 ? 
Why ,vere not general Councils held at an earlier 
period? By "hose authority ,vas the Council of 

1 An assembly of ecclesiastical persons. 
2 To distinguish them from national or prorincial Councils. 
3 l\latters of faith. 
4, I ts members were inspired persons. 
:; In the middle of the 2nd century. 
6 Synods. 
7 That of Nice, A.D. 325. 



Nice called)? By whose authority were other 
general Councils conyened 2 ? What ,vas that 
Council called, ,vhich ,vas convened by the Church 
of Ronle in 1123 3 ? 'Yas the Council of Trent 
called by the authority of the Church of ROille 
alone? Had that Church power to can a general 
council? What inlpedinlen t is there llO'V to a 
general council being held? 
'Vhat is the relation of Church and State in 
a Christian conlnlunity 4? Who is the snprelne 
goyemor in such a comnlunity 5? 'Vhat sanction 
then nUlst the persons conlposing general councils 
hay-e, before they can meet to deliberate 6? In the 
constitution of the J e,vish Polity, in wl10ln ,vas 
the supr
nle power vested 1 ? To w honl ,vas the 
direction given in Numbers xi. 16? 'Vhat ,vas 
the nature of that direction? Who sunlnlonecl a 
council to consult about bringing Lack the ark? 
(1 Chron. xiii. 1, 2.) "\Vhy did not the Apostle

1 That of the Emperor Constantine. 
2 The second general council, that of Constantinople, A. D. 381, 
by the authority of Theodosius; the third at Ephesus, A. D. 431, 
by Theodosius the younger; the fourth at Chalcedon, A.D. 451, b)" 
3 The first Lateran Council, included by the Church of Rome 
in the number of genel'a} councils. 
4 In a Christian communit)", Church and State are one and the 
same thing; every member of such a community being a part of 
Loth. Hooker says, "The Church aud Commuuwealth ;n.e names 
which import things reall)' different, but those things are accidents, 
and such accÎòents as may aud should a 1 waJ8 dwell lovingly 
ether in one subject." (Hooker, b. viii. 
;) The Soyereign power, whatever it ma)' be. 
6 The sanction of the government of the countries to which they 
respective])' belong. 
7 In Moses, as the representative of the civil power. 
E 6 



obtain the sanction of the civil po,ver in the case 
recorded in Acts xv. 1 ? "\Vhat general precepts 
of the N e,v Testan1ent enforce oLedience to the 
civil power? (I{omans xiii. 1-5. Titus iii. 1.) 
\Vas the civil power Christian, ,,,,hen these precepts 
,vere given? ",Vhat do you infer froll1 this 2 ? 
Gelleral COlfÞncils not infallible.- 'Vhat alone 
could secure a general council fronl error:S? 1Vas 
this the case ,vith the council held at J erusaleul ? 
Show that the 11lenlbers of that council ,vere guided 
by the Holy Ghost. (Acts xv. 28.) Can these ,vords 
be applied in the saIne sense to other councils'? 
On ,,
hat grounds alone can we adn1Ït the infalli- 
bility of councils:5? Repeat J\fatt. xvi. 18, last 
clause. Does this prolllise relate to the infallibility 
of councils 6? Repeat John xiv. 26. To .whom 
,vas this pronlÎse originally given 7? Repeat J\Iatt. 
xviii. 20. \Vas this promise limited to the Apostles 
only 8 ? In applying these and sin1Îlar passages 

J They were inspired persons, and the civil power under which 
they lived had not then embraced Christianity; moreover, this 
was not a general council. 
2 If obedience to the civil power was enjoined upon Christians 
when that power was heathen, how much more when it became 
Clwist ian ? 
3 Its members being all favoured with a special Divine SUpel"- 
'No. The former had he grace of special and miraculous 
illumination, whereas other councils have oul)' had the favour of 
that ge1Ural assistance and presence which Christ promises to his 
5 rrhey must be proved to be so from Scripture. 
6 No; it is a general promise of perpetuity of the faith to the 
Church Catholic, not of infallibility to a particular council. 
7 To the Apostles, as the founders of the Christian Church. 
8 No; it is a general promise of Christ's presence with his 
Church to the end of time. 



to the case of general councils, ,vhat points 11lUSt 
first be cxan1Ïned I? ....<\pply these tests to the 
Council of :Nice. Supposing a general council to 
have been lawfully sUlllnloned, ,vhat n1ust be its 
ultilnate appeal, as to things necessary to salyation ? 
Evidence from A ntiq'uity.- Ho,v does Tertullian 
assert the suprelnacy of the civil power 2 ? 'Vhat 
is the testill10ny of St. J ero111e 3? Sho,y that 
general councils have erred, even in things pertain- 
ing to Gael '. 


Of Purgatory. 
The Romish doctrine concerning Purgatory, Pardons, 
,r orshipping and Adoration, as well of Images as of 
Reliques, and also invocation of Saints, is a fond thing 
vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of 
Scripture, but rather repugnant to the '" ord of God. 
De Purgatorio. 
Doctrina Romanensium de Purgatorio, de Indulgen- 
tiis, de Veneratione, et Adoratione, turn Imaginum 
turn Reliquiarum, necnon de invocatione Sanctorum, res 
est futilis, inaniter conficta, et nullis Scripturarum tes- 
timoniis innititur; immo verbo Dei contradicit. 
1 'Ve must inquire whether these councils have had good '/llotius, 
and whether they }mve been unanimous. 
.-" The Emperor is greater than all, and less 
than none but the true God." (Tat. ad Scap. c. 2.) 
a ST. JERO)IE.-" Answer, I pray thee, the sJnod bJ' which he 
was excommunicated, in what city was it 
 Teach us "ho were 
consuls that Jear: 1Vhat Empero.r c01lluwndtd tMs council to Le 
gathered together 
 " (See Bereridge, vol. ii. p. 144.) 
, The Council of H.imilli (summoned by Constantius, A. D. 3GO,) 
suLscribed an erroneous Creed, so that, as J ernme says, "the 
whole world groaned, and wondered to find itself Arian." The 
second Nicene Council, A. D. 7B7, decreed the worship of images. 



'Vhat is the subject of this Article? Ho'v does 
this .LL\.rticle differ fronl that published in 1:552 1 ? 
Ho,v is the Ron1Ïsh doctrine concerning these 
points described? 'Vhat do you nlcan hy a fond 
thing 2? 'Vhat is the Latin, translated" but rather 
repugnan t to the 'V ord of God 3 ?" 
These doctrines are condelnned for three causes: 
(1) They are not groundcd on reason; 
(2) K or on Scripture. 
(3) They are contrary to both. 
Purgator.y.- \Vhat is the Ron1Ísh doctrine con- 
cerning Purgatory'? Froln ,vhence does the idca 
of Purgatory appear to have originated 5? Is there 
any allusion to Purgatory in Scripture 6? Repeat 

1 'Vhat is here called the" Romish doctrine" is there caned 
"the doctrine of the Schoolmen ;" because in 1552 the Church 
of Rome had not authoritatively recognized these doctrines; they 
were howe\rer so recognized by that Church in 15G3. 
2 The Latin is" res est futilis, inaniter conficta," afoolis1l, tlting, 
falsely daised. 
3 "Immo, verbo Dei contradicit," yea, rather, it contradicts tlu
'lC01'd of aod. 
, That every man is subject both to temporal and eternal 
puuishment, for his sins; that God does indeed l)ardon sin as to 
its eternal punishment, for the merits of Christ; but that the 
sinner is stilI liable to temporal punishment, which must be ex- 
piated by yoluntary acts of penance. here; and if the expiation 
does not full)" take place in this life, that there is an intermediate 
state in which departed souls suffer the remainder of their punish- 
ment, calJed PURGATORY, because it is supposed to purge them 
from the remaining effects of their sins. 
5 It is of heathen origin. Virgil appears to allude to it in the 
following lines :- 
Ergo exercentur pænis, veterumque malorum 
Supplicia expendunt. Aliæ panùuntur inanes 
Suspensæ ad ventos; a1iis sub gurgite vasto 
Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni. 
Æn. lib. vi. v. 739. 
6 No. [\Ve read indeed of a place called Hades, the abode of 
departed spirits, until their reunion with theil' bodies on the daJ' 



Rev. xxi. 27. lflzere Inust we be cleansed in 
order that we may enter heaven 1 (Eccles. ix. 10. 
2 Cor. vi. 2.) Repeat 1 Cor. iii. 9-15. On ,yhat 
subject is St. Paul speaking in t11at passage? To 
,yhat docs he compare the different teachers? 
"\Vhat do you understand by the gold, silver, pre- 
cious stones, &c. 1 ? "\Vhat is the day spoken of 
in verse 13 2 ? Ho,v váll that day be revealed? 
(2 Thess. i. 7, 8.) "\Yhat effect will the fire have 
upon the different teachers' works 3 ? "\Vhat will 
happen to the teacher hin1self? (verse 15, last 
clause.) "\Vhat do 
you mean by the expression 
yet so as by fire 4 1" Repeat ::\Iatt. xii. 32, last 
clause. "\Vhat do you understand by the ,yords 
c'; neither in this ,vorld, neither in the ,yorld to 

of resurrection. And it would further appear that this place is 
divided into two completel)' separated parts: the abode of wicked 
spirits, where they fearfully anticipate their future doom; and the 
abode of holy spirits, called Paradise, and Abraham's bosom, (after 
the manner of the Jews,) where they joyfully anticipate their 
" perfect consummation and bliss, both in body and soul." Our 
Lord himself did not ascend into heaven until his human soul had 
been reunited to his body. But there are but two states or con- 
ditions of men after death, one of happiness, and the other of 
punishment, the state of each individual after death beinO' unalter- 
able. Compare Luke xvi. 22, 23. :Matt. xxv. 4G. L
ke xxiii. 
43. &c.] 
I Different characters con verted to Christianity; some of whom 
would be genuine converts, and others counterfeits (åVÓICLfloL). 
2 The day of judgment. 
3 The true converts will pass safely througl
 the rest will be 
i He will escape, as a man escapes whose house is on fire ; i. e. 
he will save himself and nothing more. Compare Jude 23, and 
Livy xxii. 35, "Ex damnatione collegæ et suà prope ambustus 



COlne 1 1" What is the l)arallel passage In St. 
:\Iark 1 (iii. 29.) 
"\Vhat state did St. Paul expect after death 1 
(2 Tinl. iv. 8. Phil. i. 23.) Into what state is 
Lazarus represented as passing ilnnIediatelyafter 
his death? (Luke xvi. 22.) 'Vhat ,vas our Lord's 
pron1Ïse to the'penitent thief on the cross? 110,'" 
is the condition of all those ,vho die in the Lord 
described by St. John? (Rev. xiv. 13.) 
Does it please God sOluetÌ1nes to visit his people 
,vith temporal punishnlents for sin? Ho,v ,vas 
David punished for his Inoesunlptuous sin? (2 Sam. 
xii. 10. 14.) 1Vhat 'vas the sin of ::\loses 1 Ho,v 
,vas he punished? (Deut. xxxii. 49.) Does it please 
God sOlnetinlcs to reconlpensc the ,,?icked ,vith a 
tenIporal re,vard? Ho,,,, "Tas Ahab re,varded for 
his feigncd hUlniliation? (1 l{ings xxi. 29.) 1Vhat 
\vas the re,vard of K ebuchadnezzar for his service 
against TJrus 1 (EzelL xxix. 18-20.) Have 
these instances any thing to do ,vith the doctrine 
condeillned in this Article 2 1 
1Vas it an early cliston1 in the Church to pray 
for the dead 3 1 Had this custonl any conncxion 
,yith Purgatory'? What was the origin of prayers 

1 It merely signifies what would neur take place. 
2 No. ]'hey are a part of God's moral government in this 
world, for the }mrpose of vindicating his attributes; but they have 
nothing to do with the state beyond the grave. 
3 It had become ver)' general in the third century, but we read 
nothing of it in the first or second. 

 No. These prayers were offered for those who were helieved 
to be in the intermediate state, and had originally no connexion 
with Purgatory; though they prepared the wa)' for that error. 



for the dead I? Is there any authority in Scripture 
for the practice of praying for the dead? 'Vhen 
are \Vc taught to believe that the elect of God ,viII 
be adn1Ïtted to their con1plete happiness 2 ? Ho,v 
is this expressed in the Burial Service 3 ? 
Pardo 1l s.- What is the Latin ,vord translateù 
pardons 4? 'Vhat is the RonlÍsh doctrine con- 
cerning pardons 5? 'Vhat other doctrine of the 
Church of Ron1e is connected with it 6 ? Why do 
you conclude that the Romish doctrine \vith refer- 
ence to such !)ardons is a fond thing, vainly in.- 
ented 7 ? In ,vhat respect is it repugnant to the 
Word of God 8? 
Haù the primitive Church the po\ver of inflict- 
ing temporal punishments 9 "? On ,,
hat exan1ple 
of the New Testanlent does this appear to have 
been founded? (1 Cor. Y.) 'That ,vas the nature 

1 It was the custom in the primitive Church to commemorate 
the departed saints annually upon the days of their deaths, which 
's were called natalitia, because they were the daJ"s on which 
they were born again to heaven; and these acts of commemoration, 
by an easy transition, passed into prayers for their happiness. 
2 At the final reunion of soul and body at the last day. 
3 "That we, with all those that are departed in the true faith of 
thy Holy Name, may have our perfect consummation and bliss, 
both in body and soul, in t11)' eternal and everlasting glory." 
4 Indlllgelltiæ. 
.:i That the Church has power to remit a whole or part of thf> 
pains of Pm'gator)', on certain conditions. 
6 Supererogation. See Article XIV. 
7 It depends for its truth upon the doctrines of Purgatory and 
JVorks of Supererogation, which have been shown to be false. 
s It gives to man the power of remitting God's debts; whereas, 
" 'Vho can forgive sins but God alone 1" 
. 9 The primitive Church had the power of putting notorious 
smners to open penance in this world. (See tIle CommiJlati{)}i 
Serrice. ) 



of these punishments 11 "\Vhen was the privilege 
granted of relaxing their severity 2 ? "\Vhat "Tere 
these favours called 31 Ho,v did they differ fronl 
the pardons condcl1lned in this Article 4 ? 
1Vorshippi'ng and adoration, as well of Ilnages 
as of Reliques. 
I mages.- What are the Latin ,vords translated 
'worshipping and adoration:5? Repeat the second 
CODl111andment. "\Vhat does this conl11landulent 
forbid 6? "\Vhat reason does God give for not 
having assuJued a visible shape, ,,,"hen lIe gave the 
la,v fronl 8inai? (Deut. iv. 16.) Did the Israelites, 
110t,vithstanding this comnlandnlent, fan into 
idolatry? "\Vere they punished for so doing? 
"\Vhat ,vas the argulllent used by St. Paul to dis- 
suade the Athenians fronl idolatry? (Acts xvii. 
24-29.) Repeat 1 John v. 2l. 
How has it been attempted to defend the use of 
inlages 7? Why was the Gentile world condenlned 
by St. Paul? (Ronl. i. 21-23.) 'Vhat is the 
Greek ,yord translated an image in that passage 8? 

1 The offender was excluded from the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, until he had performed certain acts of penance. 
2 A t the Council of Nice. 
3 Indulgences. 
4 They were a remission of temporal punishments, which a
the Church had inflicted, so it had a right to relax. 
5 Veneratio et adoratio. 
6 It forbids us to worship the true God by an imag-e. 
7 By making a distinction between an image (E(ICWV) and an 
idol (Eiòw
ov); the fùrmer being a true representation of a thing, 
the latter representing that which is not. It is then asserted, that 
images (EitcÓVE{;) may be used, because the mind wants a fulcrum 
on which to rest the thoughts in prayer. 
8 Ei,.wv. 



"\Vhat' appears to have been the object of the 
Israelites in setting up the golden calf)? IIo,v 
is this cOl1llllented upon by the Psahnist? (Psahn 
cvi. ] 9, 20.) By whose conlllland ,yere the 
cherubims made for the service of the tabernacle? 
Where w"ere they placed? (IIeb. ix. 3-5.) "\Vhy 
do you conclude that they ,yere never intended to 
be an object of worship 2 ? 
IIad the early Christians any inlages in their 
,,-orship 3 ? By ,vhat argulnents did they con1bat 
the Gentile practice of in1age worship 4 ? About 
,\-hat period ,yere in1a.ges -first introduced 5? \Vhat 
appears to have been their design 6 ? 
Reliq'ues.- 'Vhat are Ineant by rel'iq1les 7? Does 
Scripture give any sanction to the adoration of 
reliques? \Vhat is recorded \vith regard to the 
burial of 
roses? (Deut. xxxiv. 6.) "\Vhat appears 
to have been the reason for this care ,vith reference 
to his sepulchre 8? Repeat 2 l{ings xviii. 4. 'Yhat 

1 It does not appear that they intended to make it as a god, or 
as the representative of a god, but merely as something sensible 
by which to worship Jehovah. 
2 Because they were placed in the" holiest of all," where the 
high priest went onl)" once a ,year, and the people never. 
3 K 0 ; and they were reproached by the heathen for not using 
4 The plain statements of Scripture, and the spiritual nature 
of God. 
5 In the fifth century. 
6 To honour the memory of departed saints; bnd perhaps also 
to accommodate the Christian religion to the prejudices of the 
7 The remains of departed saints, such as their bodies, and even 
their bones, their hair, or their garments, &c. 
8 The proneness of the Jews to idolatry, which might have led 
them to pay Divine honour to his Lody. 



abuse had the Israelites nlade of the brazen serpent? 
"\Vas Hezekiah cOl1lnlended for destroying it? 1Vhy 
"yere Aaron's rod and the lllanna preserved I? Is 
there any evidence that they were ,vorshipped? 
'Vhat Iniracle "ras wrought by the bones of Elisha 
after his death? (2 J{ings xiii. 21.) 'V ere they 
,yorshipped in conscquence? Repcat Acts xix. I], 
12. Do these n1Ïracles giye any countenance to 
the vencration of reliques 2? If reliques had been 
intended to be the objects of adoration, ,vhen Inight 
,ye suppose they,vould have Leen lllost carefully 
preserved 3? "\Vhat did" devout men" do with the 
body of Stephen after his Inartyrdom? (Acts 
viii. 2.) 
Invocation of Sæints.- What is the Romish doc- 
trine concerning the invocation of saints i? Ho,v 
does it appear that this is a fond thing, vainly 
invented 5? In ,vhat respect is it repugnant to the 
'V ord of God? (I Tinl. ii. 5.) Do ,ve read of any 
invocation of saints in the Old Testanlcnt? 1Vas 
Abrahanl invocated? Or J\Ioses? Or Elijah 6 ? 
'Vhat does St. Paul forbid in Co!. ii. 18? If we 

1 That they might be records of God's power. 
2 I\ 0 ; the handkerchi"fs and aprons were onl)' the instruments 
of Christ's power, just a
 the borda of his garment was ill the case 
of the woman with the issue of blood. 
3 In the earliest period of Christianity, when the most precious 
reliques, those of our Saviour and his Apostles, were to be obtained. 
4 That the saints reigning with Christ offer up their prayers for 
men, and that it is good and useful to invocate or pray unto them. 
5 Because it assumes that the saints are omniscient and omni- 
(j No; although the miraculous manner of his translation might 
bave been thought a good reason for such invocation. 



are forbidden to ,,,orship angels, what may we infer 
with regard to Inen 11 When 8t. John feU down 
to ,yorship the angel, ,vhat was the answer 1 (Rev. 
xix. 10.) Repeat the exhortation in Heb. xiii. 7. 
'Vhat are Christians here directed to do with regard 
to those ,,,ho had departed 21 "\Vhy do you infer that 
this exhortation refers to those who "ere dead 31 
Upon what grounds has it been attempted to 
justify the invocation of saints 41 Is there anJT 
authority for this distinction in Scripture 1 
'Vhat appears to have been the origin of the 
invocation of saints 5 1 About what time does the 
custom appear to have been confirn1ed 61 
Evidencewfrom A ntiq1.dty.- 'Vhat is the testin10ny 
of St. Clen1ent against the doctrine of Purrgato1
y 7 ? 

1 That they must not be worshipped, being (Otter tItan tile angels. 
2 To remember, to reverence, and to imitate them. 
3 The original is in the past tense, 1\1 VfJPOVfVfTE TWV f]}'OVflf.VWV 
vp.wv, O'íTIVU;; fÀå'X1](jav &c. 
4: By making a distinction between the homage and the addresses 
made to God, and those made to saints. 1'hey say that 'AaTpfía 
is given to God, lov'AEia to saints, and V7rE.pòov'XE.ia to the Virgin 
MarJ. They say that the)" address God, in the words niiscrne 
nobis, and the saints in the words ora P'1'O noh.s. 
5 It appeal'S to have originated in the 7latalitia or commemora- 
tion days referred to before; but it was by almost imperceptible 
steps that the practice of praJing to the saints was confirmed. 
6 1\ot till the end of the fourth century. 
7 [ST. CLE:'IE
T"-" \Vhi]st therefore we are upon earth, let us 
repent. For we are as cia)" in the hand of the artificer. For as 
the potter, if he makes a vessel, and finds it crooked or Lro];:en 
in his hands, may again fashion it anew; but if beforehand he 
hath thrown it into the fif'ry furnace, there is no more help for it, 
he cannot make it better; so also we, as long as we are in this 
world, may repent fl'om the whole heart, of the evils we have done 
in the flesh, that we may be sayed of the Lord, whilst we have 
oppOl'tunity of repentance. For after we have left this world, we 
can nu longer confess or repent." (Clem. Rom. Lp. ii. c. ,"iii.)] 



Of St. Cyprian t? Of St. Chrysost0111 2 ? IIo,y does 
Justin )Iartyr speak of the condition of righteous 
and ,,;cked souls respectively in the intermediate 
state 3 ? 
Give a testilnony froll1 St. Chrysoston1 on the 
doctrine of Pardons f. From St. An1brose 5 . 
"\Yhat is the evidence of Origen on the subject 
of Image worship 6? Of Gregory the Great? 1Vhat 
,vas the decree of the Elibertine Council on this 
point 7 ? 
Ho,v does St. ..I..\.ugustine Rpeak of the practice of 
,yorshipping Reliques 8 ? 

t ST. CVPRTA:\'.-" There is no confession in the invisible \yorld, 
nor any discipline of repentance there." (Ep. 55. Oxf. ed.) 
2 ST. CHRVSOSTml.-" For those that truly follow ,'irtue, aftel o 
they are chan
ed from this life, they be truly freed from their 
fightings, and loosed from their bonds. For death to such as live 
honestly is a change from worse to better, from this transitory to 
an immortal and eternal life that hath no end." (Gllr!Jsost. in Gen. 
IIOl1t. 36.) . 
3 [J l:'STIN :l\IARTVR.-" The souls of the wicked, subsisting even 
after death, feel punishment; but the souls of good men live 
happily, free from punishments." (Just. JJart. Apol. ii.)] 
.. ST. CnRYSOSTml.-" None can pardon sins but only God." 
(CI17 o ys. in 2 Gor. Hom. 6.) 
5 ST. A}IBROSE.-" 'fhis cannot be common to any man with 
Christ to forgive sins. This is his gift only who took away the 
sins of the world." (BeTeridge, vol. ii. p. 164.) 
6 ORIGEN.-" 'Ve do not honour images, that as much as in us 
lies, we might not fall into the su!;picion that these images were 
other gods." (Orig. COl1t. Gels. l. 7.) 
GREGORY.-" To worship images, by all means avoid." (Greg. 
.11Iag. epist. 1. 1.) 
7 That pictures or images ou
ht not to be in the Church, lest 
that which is worshipped and adored should be painted upon the 
walls. (Conctl. Elibert. cap. 36.) 
8 He condemns them, and says, speaking of the practice of the 
irlle monks, " Alii martyrum, si vere martyrum, membra vendi- 
tant." (Aug. de Ope },[Qnac]torUln, cap. 28.) 



At ,,-hose suggestion ,vas the bod
T of Polycarp 
burnt after his nlartyrdolll 1 1 'Thy 1 I-Iow did the 
Christians defend then1se!yeS fronl this accusation 2? 
1Vbat is the testitnony of .A.ugustine ,vith regard 
to the Invocation of Saints 3 ? 


Of J/inistering in the Congregation. 
It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the 
office of pnblick preaching, or ministering the Sacra- 
ments in the Congregation, before he be lawfully called, 
and sent to execute the same. And those we ought 
to judge lawfully caned and s
nt, which be chosen and 
called to this work by In
n who have publick authority 
gi ven unto them in the Congregation, to can and send 
l\Iinisters into the Lord's vineyard. 
De Jlinistrando in Ecclesia. 
Non licet cuiquam sumere sibi munns publice prædi- 
candi, aut administrandi Sacramenta in Ecc1esia, nisi 
prius fuerit ad hæc obeunda legitime vocatus et missus. 
Atque illos legitime vocatos et missos existimare debe- 
1 At dIe suggestion of the Jews, for fear it should be taken by 
the Christians and slllined. 
2 They said, " These men know not that we can neither forsake 
Christ, who suffered for the salvation of all that are saved, the 
inno('ent for the guilty, nor worship any other; Him truly, being 
the Son of God, we adore ; but the martyrs, and disciples, and 
fullowers of the Lord, we justly love for that extraordinary good 
mind which they bave expressed toward their King aml1\laster ; 
of who
e happiness God grant that we partake, and that we 
ma} learn by their examples." (Eccles. SlIlyr. Ep. de S. Poly. 
JJlartyr. xvii.) 
E.-" Let us not make it any part of religion to 
worship men that arc dead; for if they lived well, they are now in 
that state, that they need not, neither do they require an)' honour 
at our hands; but they would have us to worship Gud," &c. "They 
are then to be honoured for imitation; not to be adored for 
religion:' (Aug. de -rerá religione, cap. 55.) 



mus, qui per homines, qui bus potestas vocandi mmlS- 
tros, atque mittendi in vineam Domini, publice concessa 
est in Ecclesia, cooptati fuerint, et adsciti in hoc opus. 

1Yhat is the subject of this ....\rticle 1 \Vhat is 
nleant by the Congregation 1 1 IIow is n1Ïnistering 
in the Congregation described in this Article 1 1Vhy 
are these t,vo points lnentioned 2 1 1Vhat is the 
Latin version of the ,yords " chosen and called 31" 
1Vhat arc the two propositions to be proved in 
this Article f 1 
Are these propositions agreeable to right reason, 
and to our sense of the natural fitness of things 1 
Is the san1e principle recognized in the things of 
the ""'0 rI d, and in the administration of human 
affairs 5 1 What inference do you dra,y fron1 hence 6 ? 
Does it appear from Scripture that it is the ,,,ill 
of Christ that his Church should be ordered and 

1 The word in the Latin is ecclesia, which is elsewhere translated 
2 See the answer in Article XIX. 
3 "Cooptati et adsciti ;" the former of which was the word 
useù to represent admission into the College of Augurs at Rome; 
and both words impl)' that ministers must be admitted to their 
office by those who are ministers. 
f Pirst: that ministers must not be self-appointed; and secondly, 
that they must be appointed by those who have authority for this 
5 In human governments, no man is accounted to have a lawful 
can to any office, nor can he be permitted to execute it, except he 
be appointed to it, either by those who have the chief autllOrity, 
or by persons delegated by them. 
6 How much less is it seemly or lawful, that any should take 
upon them to act in such sacred and high ministries as those 
which relate to God'l:j holy 'V ord and Sacraments, except they 
have first been commissioned by the great Head of the Church, 
or by those to whom He has delegated authority. 



goyerned in any particular ,yay I '? Does the Scrip- 
ture contain any express direction as to the regula- 
tion and government of Christ's Church 2 '? But 
,vould not Christ, if He had intended that there 
should be at all tinles a certain constitution and 
order in his Church, ha\"e taken care to tell us this 
so explicitly and distinctly, that there sllould be 
no roon1 for error or dispute 3 '? lias Christ been 
pleased to deal with us in this manner in any 
other cases of inlportance relative to duty 4 ? For 
example; on ,vhat principle do we condemn 
Polygalny'? On ,yhat principle do ,ve observe 
the first day of the ,veek, instead of the seventh, 
as the Christian Sabbath'? On \vhat principle do 

I 'Ve know that He is infinitely wise and good, a God of order 
and not of confusion; and He intended his Church to continue 
for ever; and this it could not do without such provision, for no 
society can hold together without rule and subordination. 
2 'Ve do not say that there is a direction in Scripture so plain 
as that contentious pf'rsons may not say it is not sufficient to con- 
vince them; but there is evidence enough on the subject to satisfy 
the humble and sincere inquirer, who is 110t unwilling to be 
convinced by just reason. 
3 This cannot be concluded on any reasonable analogy. If He 
has given us intimations of his will, though not in express terms, 
)"et discernible to us by the general tenor of Scripture; his will 
so made known to us is as much binding upon us, as if it had 
been expressly revealed. 
4 There are several instances in proof of this; as for example, 
the cases of PO(lf!la'lny, tlte obserrance of tlie first day of tlte 'lreek 
as tlu
 Cltristian Sa.bbatlt, and the Baptism of b
"ants; in all of 
which, though we cannot allege all)'e.rpress warrant of God's word, 
).et we know for certain that all Christian ChuTC'hes in all nations 
are a
reetl, and in all ages have been agreed, upon these points, 
from the first beginning of Christianity tmtil now; and this only 
upon the ground of the general tenor of Scripture, and the practice 
of the Primitive Church, which is justly held to be the safest inter- 
preter of the sense in which those of the Apostolic age received 
the Holy Scriptures. 




,ve justify the Baptisnl of Infants? What parts 
of the IIoly Scripture appear to contain intimations 
as to Christ's ,,
in concerning the order and con- 
stitution of his Church 1 ? 
F'rorn the Old Testarnent.- What arO'unlellt 
ould you derive fronl the Old Testament 2? 'Vhat 
})a:ssages of thè Old Testanlent s110w' this 3? 'Vhat 
further proof nlay lJC derived from the Old Testa- 
nlent'? But are the rules w'hich ,vere laid down 
for those ,vho ,yere under the La,v, necessarily 
binding upon us, ,,
ho live under the greater light 
and greater freedonl of the Gospe1 5 ? Can any 
analogy be traced betw'cell the constitution of the 
Jewish Church and that of the Christian 6 ? 

I Both the Old and the New Testaments. 
2 The Old Testament shows that it was the will of God under the 
Je\\ish Covenant, that none should taJ
e upon them to minister in 
holy things, without appointment from Himself, or from tho:se to 
whom He delegated authority. 
3 All those which F.peak of the manner of the appointment, first, 
of Aaron aud of his sons, and afterwards of the Priests and Levites; 
and the strict rules which were enjoined in these matters, for the 
purpose of excluding all others from ministering. (See Exod. 
xxviii. 41. xxix. 1-4. Numbers viii. (i-B. 14, &c.) 
, rrhe cases of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram (Numbers xvi.); of 
Saul (1 Sam. xiii.); and of Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi.); all of whom 
committed a 
reat tre
pass in presuming to minister in holy things 
without being lawfully called. 
5 rrhe argument does n t go to that extent; but this we do main- 
tain, that a part of that li
ht which we possess under the Gospel, is 
derived to us from the Law rightly interpreted; and, indeed, none 
are so unreasonable as to conclude that God did not intend that 
we should derive any guidance in such matters from the Old Testa- 
ment, nor any insight into his wiH at all times and under all cir- 
cumstances; for upon such a supposition the Old Testament would 
become a dead letter to us. 
fi In the Jewish Church there was a threefold ministry, that of 
High Priest, Priests, and Levites; corresponding to the three 
orders of Bishops, Priests, and Dea;,cons. 



Fr01n the j'.rew Testalnent.- What information 
ùo we derive fronl the New Testalnent as to the 
order of the ministry ,yllÏch subsisted in the 
Christian Church in the tinles of the Apostles 11 
"\Vhat ,,,ere those orders 2? 'Vho filled the superior 
orders in the tinIcs of th
 Apostles 31 Does it 
appear fronl Scripture that the Apostles had power 
expressly given them to constitute other persons 
to carryon after their tinle the preaching of the 
Gospel, and the adnlÏnistration of the Sacraments 4? 
Repeat the promise in l\Iatt. xxviii. 20. "\Vhy do 
you infer that this pronlise was not linlited to the 
Apostles only 51 
1Vhat were those persona called, ,vho filled the 
ministry next in rank to the A posHes 6 ? "\Vho 
ere the first Presbyters 7 ? Is there any express 

1 "Te learn from the Kew Testament that there were three 
o'rders of ministers actually existing at that time. 
2 'l'here were t\\ 0 gradations of inferior orders, one higher than 
the other; aud there was a third order, superior to them both, with 
!)ower to ordain the two inferior orders, and to take the general 
oversight of them and of the Church. 
3 The Apostles themselves, to whom our Lord committed both 
the first establishment and the government of his Church. 
4 In John xx. 21, Christ said to them, " As my Father hath sent 
me, even so send I :you." 
ow it is evident that God the Father 

ent Christ to ordain them; therefore it follows that they also 
recehoed power from Him to ordain others. And we know that in 
fact they d'úl ordain others, which cuuld only have been done bJ 
virtue of that commission with which they were invested by Christ. 
5 Because they were only to live for a few years; whereas this 
promisp reaches to the end of time. 
6 Presbyters or Elders, from the Greek '1rPEG'ßVTE{JOÇ, which 
signifies a superior, properl)" in age, and thence also in 'lJ:ortli. and 
grar:ity. From hence we derive our English word Priest. 
7 It is very probable that they were the seventy disciples men- 
tioned in Luke xi. whom Christ sent forth to preach and to heal 
. the sick. (See [looker, b. v. 
F 2 



lllention orthe appointment of the seventy, or ofanJ 
other per
ons to be Presb.}'ters 11 Are they always 
called by the name of Presbyters or Elders 2? For 
,,,,hol11 did St. Paul senù to nlcet hinl at l\Iiletus? 
(Acts xx. 17.) "\Vhat arc these Elders or Presbyters 
called in verse 28? Do ,ve find Elders or Pres- 
byters so de;:,igllated else,vhere:5? 
What ,yas the designation of the third or inferior 
order in the n1illistry t ? \Vhere do ,ve read of 
their fir
t appointnlellt? (Acts vi. 1-6.) \Vhat 
,vas the occasion of it ? \Vhat ,vcre the duties of 
these Deacons 5? Does it appear that they ,vere 
also authorized to preach and baptize 6 ? \Vhat 
other property of this order may be collected from 
Scri pture 7 ? 
It appears that at this time the Apostles ,yere the 
chief order of the Christian Ininistry. \Vhat passage 

1 'fhere is no express mention of the appointment of the sevpnt,y; 
but there is a distinct reference to the ordaining of Elders by the 
Apostles Paul and Barnabas, in every Church which they had 
founded (Acts xiv. 23); and in the Epistles to 'rimothy and Titus, 
and in other places, they are spoken of as an order then existing. 
2 They are sometimes called Bislwps, from the Greek word 
f.1rít1IC01rO!:, which signifies literally an 01JfTSeer, and which, when 
applied to Elders, has a reference to their o.ffice, as having the over- 
sight of the laity. 
3 They are so called in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus; the 
name being at that time "sed to describe the nature of their duties, 
as superintendents of the laity, and being not then restricted to 
the higher order of the ministry, as it aftprwards was. 
t They were called Deacons, from the Greek word ,ótåICOVO!:, 
a serrallt or minister; which name was used at first as expressing 
the nature of their duties. 
5 To take care of the funds for the 1)001'. 
6 Yes; as is evident from the instances of Stephen and Philip, 
who were Deacons. See Acts vi. and viii. 
7 It appears from I Tim. iii. 13, that the order was probationm"y, 
and that it led to that of the priesthood. 



.shows that they ordained Deacons? (Acts vi. 1-6.) 
That they ordained Elders or Priests? (Acts xiv. 
23.) "\Vho succeeded to the chief oyersight of the 
Church after the death of the Apostles 1 ? Do we 
read of any in the New Testament, ,vho, though 
not llaving the name of Bishop expressly given to 
them, had the office of chief overseer delegated to 
thenl by Apostolic authority 2 ? What evidence 
have we that their n1inistry ,vas the same as that 
,vith which Bishops no'v invested:5 ? Is there 
mention in the N e,v Testanlellt of any others be- 
sides Tinlothy and Titus ,vho had Episcopal 
authority t ? Are these persons called Bishops"? 
Why do you conclude that they could not 
have been Presbyters or Deacons only 6 ? Is 

1 Those who in the course of time came to be caned exclusively 
hops, which, as has IJeen shown, signified overseers; and who 
appear at first to have been invested with the office, without 
having the name distinctively applied to them. 
2 Timothy at Ephesus (I Tim. i. 3, 4); and Titus at Crete 
(Titus i. 5). 
3 St. Paul's Epistles to Timothy and Titus show that they had 
authority to confer ordination on Priests and Deacons (Titus i. 5. 
1 Tim. iii.); to superintend their doctrine and conduct (I Tim. i. 3. 
1 Tim. v. 19), and to rf'gulate such matters in the Church as were 
not settled hy express Divine command. And these are the acts 
and dutips which Bishops are now authorized to perform. 
4 In Revelations ii. and iii., written about 30 ye3rs later, there 
are passages which show that there were Bishol)S presiding at that 
time over the Churches of Ephesus, Sm)Tna, P
rgamos, Th)"atira, 
Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. 
5 :Ko; the
T are caned in the prophetic language, angels, which 
means messengers; but it is evident that they were 'I1l.en presiding 
Over these Churches. 
6 Because, in the case of Ephesus at least, we know that tl1ere 
were many Pre
byters (.Acts xx.),.ret the message spnt b)' Christ 
through J hhn to the angel at Ephesus, is addressed toone individual, 
who had authorit). over other ministers (Rev. ii. 2). The angel of 
the Church at Thyatira is also represented as responsible for the 
F 3 



there any instance to be found in the N e"y Tcs- 
taDlcnt of ordination to the Dlinistry ,yithout 
an Apostle, or one to ,vhom the Apostles had de- 
legated Episcopal authority? Does the Prilnitive 
Church furnish any such instance I? 
'Ve hayc seen that the constitution of the Church 
in the Apostles' time, and as regulated by thenl, 
,yas under Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. Ho\y 
are 've to explain those other names and desig- 
nations, w'hich occur in the N cw Testanlcnt, of 
Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers 2? \Vhat are we 
to understand by thc helps, governrnents, diversities 
of tongues, &c., in 1 Cor. xii. 28-30:5? 
Evidence fr01n Antiq
tity.-Does the ancient 
history of the Church confirm the conclusion dra\vn 
from the N C\v Testament; namely, that the three- 
fold ministry of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, is 
the same which existed in the tinle of the Apostles, 
and therefore is to be regarded as instituted by 

doctrine taught in that Church, being reproved for suffering a false 
prophetess to teach (Rev. ü. 20). 
1 " No man is able to show either Deacon or Presb)'ter ordained 
by Presb)'ters only, and his ordination accounted lawful in any 
ancient part of the Church." (Hooker, b. vii. 
2 See Ephes. iv. H. 'l'hese were designations of Offioes, and 
not of Orders; and they were offices which may have been executed 
by those who were in holy orders; as in fact the
T are now; there 
being nothing inconsistent in a Bishop, Priest, or Deacon, being 
calleù by any of these names, when he fulfils the duties belonging 
to them. 
3 These, too, were names of Offices, and not of Orders; and it 
appears that they were temporary, applying exclusively to the then 
state of the Church, which was miraculous, a state which was not 
always to continue, and which in fact ceased soon after the Apos- 
tolic times. 




thelll under the guidance of the Spirit of Christ 1 ? 
1Vhat is the testimony of IIooker to the sallIe pur- 
pose 2? To WhOlTI does he say this 3 ? 'Vhat further 
confirlllation do we derive frolll Hooker 
 ? 'Vhat 
is the evidence of Bishop Sanderson on this point 5 ? 
Of Bishop Taylor 6 ? Ho,v are these statements 

1 "It is evident unto aU men diligently reading holy Scripture 
and aneient .Authors, that from the Apostles' time there have been 
these orders of Ministers in Christ's Church; Bishops, Priests, and 
Deacons. \Vhich offices were evermore had in such reverend esti- 
mation, that no man might presume to execute any of them, except 
he were first called, tried, examined, and known to have such 
qualities as are requisite for the same; and also by }mblic Prayer, 
with Imposition of Hands, were approved and admitted thereunto 
by lawful Authority." (Prefaa to the Ordinal in. tlte Book of Com- 
'Jnon Prrt.yer.) 
2 "\V e require you to find out but one Church upon the face of 
the whole earth, that hath been ordered by Jour discipline, or hath 
not been ordered by ours, that is to say, by Episcopal Regiment, 
sitlJence the time that the blessed Apostles were here cOllversant." 
(Hooker, Preface, 
3 To the Pm-itang, who objected to the government of tbe Church 
by Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, and proposed other plans of 
their own invention. 
, "A thousand five hundred years and upward, the Church of 
Christ hath now continued under the sacred regiment of Bishops. 
Xeither for so lon
 hath Christianity been ever planted in any 
kingdom throughout the world, but with this kind of government 
alone; which to have been ordained of God, I am, for mine own 
part, even as resolutely persuaded as that any other kiud of govern- 
ment in the world whatsoever is of God." (Hooker, b. vii. 
" \Vherefore let us not fear to be herein bold and peremptory, 
that if any thing in the Church's government, surely the first 
Institution of Bishops was from Heaven, was even of God; the 
Holy Ghost was the Author of it." (B. vii. 
5 "The Bishops (are) the lawful Successors of the Apostles, 
and inheritors of their power." (Sanderson on Episcopacy, part 
ð "Episcopacy relies, not upon the authority of Fathers and 
Councils, but upon Scripture, upon the institution of Christ, or the 
institutit In of the A postles, upon a universal tradition and a 
universal practice; not upon the words and opinions of the doctors; 
it hath as great a testimony as Scripture itself hath." (Bis/wp 
Taylor, vol. vii. Dedication, p. 17, ed. Heber.) 
F 4 



confirmed by Ignatius 1 ? "\Vhat IS the testinlony 
of Irenæus 2? Of Tcrtullian 3? 110,," is the same 
thing sho,vn hy the decrees of the Council of Nice 4 ? 
'Vhat are the three different kinds of proof by 
,,,,hich it has been sho,yn that the Epi:::;copal fornlof 
governnlcllt is the true govenul1cnt of the Church 5? 
But may ,ve not conceive it pOðsible that 1)e1'SOn8 
nlay be called of God by the exprcss 111otion of the 

1 ImuTIus.-He says, (writing to Polycarp, who was a disciple 
of St. John,) " I would give my life for those who are obeùient 
to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons; and let it be mine to have 
my portion in God with them." (
'p. ad Pol.lJcarp. 
 G.) He saJs 
also in another place, "without these (i. e. Bishops, Presbyters, 
and DeacoI1H,) there can be no Church properly so called." (Bp. 
ad Trall. 
Æus.-He a catalogue of the twelve Bishopsof Rome 
who governed successively in that see; sa)"ing of Linus, whom he 
calls the first of them, that" he was ordained Bishop immediately 
by the Apostles upon the first foundation of the Church, and that 
Eleutherius was the 12th Bishop from the Apostles." Irenæusalso 
says that in his early life he saw Polycarp, who, he says, was 
appointed Bishop of Smyrna by the Apostles. (Lib. iii. c. 3.) 
3 TERTULLJ AN.-" When Jour CalJtaills, that is to !'ay, the Deacons, 
Presbyters, and Bishops fly, who shall teach the laity that they 
must be constant
" (De persec.) In another passage, Tertullian, 
in speaking of some who boasted that the things which they held, 
ey received of such as lived with the Apustles themselves, has 
tliese words: "Let them therefore show the beginning of their 
Churches ; let them recite their Bishops one by one, each in such 
sort succeeding other, that the first Bishop of them have had for 
his author and predecessor some Apostle, or at least some Apost0li- 
cal person who persevered with the Apostles. For thus it is that 
the Apostolical Churches 1race their pedigree (census suos de- 
Jerunt). The Church of SID)'rna counts up to Polycarp ordained 
by St. John; the Church of Rome to Clement, ordained by St. 
Peter; and so the other Churches in li1
e manner exhibit those 
who were ordained Bishops by the Apostles, by whom the A postoJi- 
cal succession was propagated and continped." (De Præsrrip. c.33.) 
, "Let the Deacons keep within their proper bounds, knowing 
dlat they are the ministers of tlte Bishops, and inferior to tlLP 
Pres/'Nters." (Cone. Nic. can. xviii.) 
5 Those derived (1) from reason and the fitness of tlÛngs; (2) from 
the IIuly Scriptures j and (3) from the records of the ancient Church. 



HoJJ' Spirit to take upon thenl the n1Ïnistry of the 
'YOI'd of God and of his sacranlents I? 1V ould JOU 
then exclulle fron1 the Ininistry those persons .who 
have this call, because the.Y have not been lawfully, 
that ið, Episcopal1y ordained 2? 1Vhat course should 
such persons take 1 \Vhat conclusion do you draw 
frol1l the ,vhole subject 3 1 

1 Ln questionably we may; and moreover,in the Ordination 8er- 
yice of the Church, this Divine call and motion is presupposed, 
and held to be necessary; the tirst question proposed to those who 
are to be ordered being, " Do you trust that JOu are inwardl)' 
moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon you this Office and Minis- 
tration, to serve God for the promoting of his glory, anù the 
edifying of his people 
2 By no means would I exclude those who have a real call; but 
it is both reasullable and necessary that they should not judge of 
their own call themselves, but should submit their reasons for 
judging thentselves so called, as well as their qualifications, to the 
trial and judgment of such persons as have authority given them 
in the Church for this purpose. 
3 That there was a form of Church government subsisting in the 
times of the A postles, and instituted by them under the immediate 
teaching of Christ, the Divine Head of the Church, and by the 
guidance of his infallible Spirit; that it consisted of the threefold 
ministry, viz. of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons; that such form 
and constitution was exactly followed by the Christian Church 
universally in the times immediately succeeding the Apostles; that 
it was transmitted downwards in an unbrolwn succession from age 
to age; and that in this form and by this transmi!:;sion it has Leell 
delivered down to us, and through God's great goodness is still 
preserved to us ; and further, that in this form, as far as all 
essential things are concE:'rned, it is the will of Christ that it should 
remain to the end of time. Therefore" it is not lawful for any 
man to take upon him the office of pubJic preaching. or ministering 
the Sacraments in the Congregation, before he be lawfully called, 
and sent to exeeute the same. And those we ought to judge law- 
fully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this work b
men who have public authority 
iven unto them in the Congrega- 
tion, to call and send labourers into the Lord':) vineyard," that is, 
the BI::5IIOPS. 

F :; 



Of speaking in the Congregation in such a tongue as the 
lJeople ullderstandeth. 
It is a thing plainly repugn
mt to the \Y ord of God, 
and the custom of the Primitive Church, to have pub- 
lick Prayer in the Church, or to minister the Sacraments 
in a tongue not understanded of the people. 
De loquendo in Ecclesia lingua quam populus intelligit. 
Lingua populo non intellecta, publicas in Ecclesia 
preces peragere, aut Sacramenta administrare, verbo Dei, 
et prinlitivæ EccJesiæ consuetudini plane repugnat. 
\Vhat is the subject of this Article? \Vhat is 
meant bJ" a tongue? Ho\v does this Article differ 
from that published in 1552 1 1- \Vhy are prayer 
and the adn1inistration of the Sacraments only 
Inentioned in this Article 2 ? 
For ",.hat two reasons does this Article conden1n 
the use of any unkllo,vn language in the conduct- 
ing of Divine Service? 'Vhat do you understand 
by the custon1 of the Primitive Church 3 ? 
Fron1,vhat general consideration \yould you con- 
clude that the public service of the Church ought 
to be conducted in a language understood by the 
people t ? In ,vhat language ,vere the J e,vish 
1 The Article published in 1552 ran thus: "It is most fit and 
most agreeable to the 'V ord of God, that nothing be read or 
rehearsed in the Congrebation in a tongue not known unto the 
people; which St. Paul hath forbidden to be done, unless some be 
present to interpret." 
2 Because the performing of mass in Latin was particularly 
insisted upon by the Church of Rome, and because preaching was 
always in the vernacular tongue. 
3 'fhat delivered by tradition. 
f It is obvious to common sense that it should be so conducted, 
in order that the people may be edified. 



services conducted? 'Vhat general direction does 
St. Paul give ,vith regard to puLlic "
orship? (1 Cor. 
xiv. 26.) \Vhat is the general argunlcnt of St. 
Paul in that chapter? 
ALout "That tinle did the use of Latin, as the 
yulgar tongue, gradually cea
e in Europe 1 ? By 
,vhom 'vas the use of the Latin Liturgy subse- 
quently inlposed 2? 'Vhat apI)ears to have Leen 
his reason? 'Vhere ,vas this Ï1nposition resisted 3 ? 
Evidence front ..Llntiqnity.-Did the PrÏ1nitiye 
Church always use a language understood by the 
people 4 ? In ,vhat word::; does J listin l\Iartyr 
describe the l1lode of conducting Divine Service 5 ? 
In ,vhat language did St. Chrysostom conlpose his 
Liturgy 6? St. Basil? 'Vhat is the testiInony of 
Origen as to the practice in the 3rd century 7 ? 

Of the Sacraments. 
Sacraments ordained of Christ be not only badges or 
token of Christian men's profession, but rather they be 
I During the course of the ninth century, in consequence of the 
irruption of the Goths, and the subversion of the Roman Empire. 
2 By Gregory the V II th, (Hildebrand,) in the eleventh centur)", 
in order to sUl-'port the papal pretensions. 
3 In Spain, where the Gothic missal had already sUI)planteù 
the Roman. 
4 Invariablv so. 
s Jt:STI:-; l\1"'ARTYR.-" After this we all rise unanimously, 
send up our prayers; and as we said before, our prayers being 
finished, the bread is offered, and the wine and water; and the 
President pours out praJers and thanksgivings with all his might 
(w(Hì UnJaIlL!: avn{i); and thcn the peo}Jle cr) ,",ut, saJing, 'Amen.'" 
(Justin ],[art!/1.. Apol. 1. 61.) 
(j In GreeI
7 ÛRIGEN.-" The Grecians pray to God in the Greek, the 
Romans in the Roman, and everyone in his own t('ngue." (Ori!f. 
cont. Cels. 1. B.) 

F 6 



certain sure witnesses, 3nd effectual signs of grace, 3nd 
God's good will towards us, by the which lIe doth work 
invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also 
strengthen and confirm our Faith in Ilim. 
There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our 
Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the 
Supper of the Lord. 
Those five commonly caned Sacran1f'nts, that is to 
say, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, l\latrimonv, and 
trenle Unction, are not to be counted for Sacr;ments 
of the Gospel, being snch as have grown partly of the 
corrupt following of the A postIes, partly are states of 
life al10wed in the Scriptures; but yet have not like 
nature of Sacraments with Baptis111 and the Lord's 
Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or cere- 
lllony ordained of God. 
The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be 
gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should 
duly use them. .And in such only as worthily receive 
the same they have a wholeson1e effect or operation: 
bl1t they that receive them unworthily purchase to them- 
selves damnation, as Saint Paul saith. 

De Sacramentis. 

Sacranlenta a Christo instituta, non tantum sunt notæ 
professionis Christianorum, sed certa quædam potius 
testimonia, et efficacia signa gratiæ atque bonæ in nos 
voluntatis Dei, per quæ invisibiliter ipse in nos operatur, 
nostramque fidem in se non solmB excitat, verum etiam 
Duo a Christo Domino n08tro in Evangelio instituta 
sunt Sacramenta: scili< et, Baptismus, et Cæna DOlllini. 
Quinque ilIa vulgo nominata Sacramenta, scilicet, 
Cuntlrmatio, Pænitentia, Ordo, l\Iatrimonimn, et Ex- 
trema U nctio, pro Sacran1entis Evangelicis habenda non 
sunt, ut quæ partin1 a prava Apostolorunl imitatione 
profluxerunt, partim vitæ status sunt in Scripturis quidem 
probati; sed Sacramentorum eandelll cum Baptismo et 
Cæna Domini rationem non habentes, ut quæ signum 



aliquod visibile, seu cæremoniam, a Deo institutam, non 
Sacramenta non in hoc instituta sunt a Christo ut spec- 
tarentur, ant circumferrentur, sed ut rite illis uteremur; 
et in his duntaxat qui digne percipiunt salutaren1 habent 
effectHm; qui vera indigne percipiunt, damnationem 
(ut inquit Paulus) sibi ipsis acquirunt. 
IIow does this Article differ fronl that published 
in the reign of E(hyard '
I. I? ",Vhat part "
adùed in 1562 2 ? \Vhat are the different points 
asserted in this Article as it is no,y settled 3 ? 
",Vhat is the original nleaning of the ,yord Sacra- 
rnent 4 ? How. is a sacranlent defined in this Article? 
What is the corresponding definition in the Church 
Catechislll? Show that these hvo definitions agree. 
By ,vhat docs God ,york invisi1Iy in us:l? \Vhat 
is the Latin version of the clause" doth not only 
quickcn, but also strengthen and confirm our faith 

1 The old Article began with the words, "Our Lord Jesus Christ 
gathered hi
 people into a Society by Sacraments, Yer)' few in 
number, most easily to ùe kept, and of most excellent signification, 
that is to say, Baptism nnd the Supper of the Lord." Then followed 
the paragraph which in this .Article is the last, excepting that after 
the word" operation" this sentence was added, "1\ ot as some say, 
ex opere o}Jf'ratu, which terms, as the
' are strange and utterly un- 
knowll to the Holy Scripture, so do they yield a sense which 
sa\"oureth of littJe piety, but of muc.h superstition," Lastl)', that 
seutence fullowed with which this Article now begins. 
2 The J.aragraph relating to the five pretended Sacraments. 
3 (I) The definition of a Sacr;mlent; (2) Those two ordinances 
are specified which answer to this dt:finition; (3) The fi\'e pre- 
tended Sacraments are condemned; (4) The proper use of the 
Sacraments is declar
4 The word Sacràment (Sacramentum) origmal1y signified an 
oatIl, especially the oath taken b,y soldiers, the military oath of 
allegiance. This si,gnification, after the estaùlishment of Chrh;ti- 
anity, led to the application of the word to the rites of Baptism and 
the Supper of the Lord. as those by which the Christian especially 
pledges himself to the service of Christ. 
ð The Latin version is per quæ, i. e. by the which Sacraments. 



in IIilu 1 1" To ,,
hich SaCran1(
llt docs the word 
qzdcken seenl to refer? To ,vhich does strengthen 
and confirniJ refer? ''''"hat are the four requisites 
in a Sacran1ont, as defined Ly the Church of Eng- 
land 2 ? 
how that the Sacran1ent of Baptism 
nvers these tests 3. Shö,v tho sallIe thing ,vith 
regard to the ,Sacranlellt of tho Lord's Supper. 
'Vhat ar
 tho five conlnlonly caned Sacranlents 
conden1ned in this ..Article? 'Vhy are the
T denied 
to be 
aCral11ents accorùing to the definition of the 
Church of England? 
Oonfinnation.-Repeat Acts viii. 12-17. 'Vho 
preached Christ to the Sanlaritans? 'Vhat ,vas 
Philip? Did he baptize the Sanlaritans upon their 
profession of faith? 'Vhat ,vas then done by the 
Church? (yerse 14.) Who '\
ere Peter and John? 
'Vhat ordinance did they then adnlÍnister? Does it 
appear fronl the narrative thai this ,vas a usual 
 at that time'? 'Vhat question ,vas put by 
St. Paul to certain disciples at Ep])esus? (Acts xix. 
2.) 'Vhat rite did St. Paul after,vards a(bninister? 
(yerse G.) Repeat Hebre,vs yi. 1, 2. 'Vhat prin- 
ciple or elen1ent of the doctrine of Christ does the 
Apostle 111ention after Baptislll 5 ? "\Vhy do you 
infer that the" laying on of hands," here alluded 

1 Nostramque fidem in se non solum excitat, verum etiam 
confirm at. 
2 J[atter, FO'1"m, IJlstitutior.., and Effect. . 
3 )Iatter, IJ'"afer. Form," in the name of the Fatlter, and o.ftlte 
Sún, and of tlte Iloly Ghust." Institution, the cúmmand of Christ 
(:Matt. xxviii. 19). Effect, a deatlt 7.lntú sin, and a new unto 
1"igltteozmless. (Rom. \ i. 4. Col. ii. 12, &..c.) 
· It is recorùed as a matter of course, without any previous 
deliberation as to its proI)riety. 
. 5 LaJing on of hands, or Confil'mation. 



to mu::;t nlcan the rite of Confirn1ation I? "\Vhat 
is the COlnment of Calvin upon this passage 2 ? 
Did the use of Confirmation continue after the 
nliraculous gifts had ceased in the Church 3 ? 
What is the testinlony of Tertullian to tbis })oint ? 
Of Cyprian? 'Vhat, according to Scripture and 
Antiquity, appears to be the proper vie,v to take 
of the rite of Confirmation 4? 'Vho is the proper 
Church officer to adnlÏnister it? On 'vbat authority 
is the adnlinistration of the rite so restricted 5? 
"\Vhat reason has been assigned for this restriction 6 ? 

1 Because it is mentioned as one of the unirersal elements or 
principles. It cannot therefore be understood to mean ordination, 
or healiug tlte sick, or indeed any thing but Confirmation. 
2 "This one place abundantly testifies that the original of this 
rite or ceremony (of Confirmation, i. e.) was from the Apostles." 
(Calrin in loc.; quoted by Bp. Jeremy Taylor, vol. xi. p. 251, ed. 
3 It was universally practised. TERTULLIA
 says: "After this, 
(i.e. Baptism), the hand is laid upon us, with invocation and invi- 
tation of the Holy Spirit." * * *" Then that most Holy Spirit 
cometh down willingly from the Father upon the bodies which 
have been sanctified and blessed." (De Baptism. 
also sa
ps, speaking of the converts in Samaria, that having ob- 
tained the legitimate BalJtism of the Church, then, " what was 
wanting was done by Peter and John, namely, that prayer heing 
made for them, with laying on of hands, the Holy Spirit should 
be invoked and poured upon them; which now also is done among 
us; those baptized in the Church, being brought to the Bishops of 
the Church, and by our praycr and laying on of hands they recei,-e 
the Holy Ghost, and are perfected with the seal of the Lord." 
(Ep. 73, 
, It is an Apostolic ordinance, the completion of the Sacrament 
of Baptism. 

 That of Scripture and the Primiti\'e Church. 
(j The reason why Bishops alone have authority to confirm is 
not because the benefit or grace of Confirmation is greater than 
that of Baptism; but rather inasmuch as by the Sacrament of 
Baptism, men are admitted into Christ's Church, if he baptizes 
them not to WhOIll the chief authority of their souls belongs, yet 
for honour's sake, and in token of his spiritual authority oyer 
them, the performance of this annexed ceremony should be sought 
for at his hands. (See IIcoker, book y. g 66.) 



''''hat is thc flns".cr of St. J erOlne to thc inquiry 
".hy Bishops alonc have authority to adn1Ïllister 
this rite I? "11Y is Continuation severcd froBl Bap- 
nl 2? 'Yhy do you l"onclude that Confinnation i8 
not to Le counted for a Sacranlcnt of the Gospcl 3 ? 
Penance.- 'Yhat i
 the derivation of the ,,"ord 
penance 4? \Vhat is the teaching of the Church of 
Ronle ,,-ith r
gard to penancp 5 ? On ,,
hat grounds 
do you conclude that it is no bacranlcnt 6 ? ''''hat 
is t he fir
t p
ut of penance, according to the Church 
of R01l1e? Does the Church of England ackno,v- 
ledge the nece
sity of contr'ition? Ho,,
 docs she 
differ from the Church of ROlne on this hcad 7 ? 

1 ST. J ERO)IE.-" If )"ou ask where it is written; it is answered, 
it is writteIl in the Acts of the Apostles. But if there were no 
authority of Scripture for it, the consent of the \\ hole Christian 
world in this article ought to prevail as a commandment." (Jerome, 
Dial. adr. LllC{f'er.) 
2 It arose in the tirst instance from the circumstance of ministers 
of inferior de
ree not bein
 permitted to confirm, and now from 
the circumstance of persons bein
 baptized when infants, at which 
age they may be admitted into God's family, though they cannot 
in their own person
 perform the conditions of membership. 
3 Because it does not answer the test, being not ordained by 
Christ himself. 
4 It is derived from pænitentia, the Latin translation of the word 
IlETávow, which means a change of mind. 
5 That it is a Sacrament of remitting sins after Baptism, and 
that it consists of the following parts-( I) Contrition, which in- 
cludes heart
r sorrow for sin, and firm purpose of amendment. 
There is, ho\\'e\"er, an imperfect contrition devised by them, called 
attrition, which means sorrow for sin, without a re
olution to sin 
no more, and this the
" ronsider sufficient to make the Sacrament 
effectual. (2) COllfe
si( 11, which is to accuse ourselves of all our 
sin" to the priest. (3) .Absolution, which is pronounced by the 
priest Judicial!.l/ upon confession made to him. (4) Satisfaction. 
After the guilt of sin is remitted, therp remains some penance to 
be undergone, decided upon by the priest, according to the nature 
of the offence. This, however, may be commuted by alms, or by 
fasting, or by the pa.llment of money. If the party dies before the 
penance is completed, he goes into purgatory. 
6 I t has no outward visible sign ordained by Christ. 
7 She denies the efficacy of attrition. 



"What is the :;;.econd pan of penance? \\hat is the 
doctrine of the Church of England with regard to 

ion to a prie::.t 1 1 'That, according to the 
Church of Rome, i
 the third pan of penance? 
"\That i5 the doctrine of the Church of England 
"ith re
ard to absobdion 2 . What is the fourth 
part of the Romish Sacrament of penance? Ho,\- 
does the Church of En_land differ from that of 
Rome with regard to satisfartion 3? How wa..; this 
word employed bv t1' e ancient Church? 
What was the origin of penance.? "1'hy was 
private confe:::,ion adopted: .....-\t what period wa<.. 
penance it
elf made secret? 'Then was it com- 
Ord s.- What is the doctrine of the Church of 
Rome with re
ard to Orders 5? IT pon w.hat 

1 "A
 for private coníe<òsion, ab1l5e5 and errore; set apart, we 
condemn it not, but leave it at libert
." (J
 1. .Apd.156, quoted 
b)" Hooker.) .5ee al"O the E;rlrortati 11 t.J tlr Holy C, "n, in 
th B ofCcrJlmo
 Pray , and the Úr for th rise &oR oft! 
2 GOO" bas ziven power and commandment to hb 
linisters to 
declare and pronounce to his people, bein
 penitent, the absolu- 
tion and remi:-:,ion of their sins;" but the absolution 
 _l'Ïven is 
mi L.
mal and prtC ory, and not . d. w. 
3 The Church of England rejects ..ati...faction in the <oen<õe in 
\\ hich it i<z intended by the Church of Rome; and though the 
earl)- Fathers uæd this word, their own writinðs show that the) 
- intended b)- it \\ hate, er a penitent :-.hould do in humbliDc 
himself to God, and te,tif)in!! his repentance b) his deeds. 
· In i-or in, penance was public, and it 
e from the C3Ee<ò 
of apo..ta
)- in the timec: of the persecutioDE. Afterwards, a5 the 
Church increased, it \\as applied 
 a remedy 10 tile di'Ordersand 
corrnptionc;: \\hich -?rang up 
;thin its pale. This led to the 
maling confes.:,ion a private matter. in order to a ,'oid scandal 

gainst the Church; soon aftel"\\ard.;z, in the 5thcentu
lf \\as pri\ ate, and to
ard.s the end of the 8th centur\ it first 
 to be commuted. . 

 Tha, the ordination of ministers is a 
acrament, founded 
upon the institution of Christ and his Apostl . In the earliest 
, minbters were set apa.n to their office b
- pm) er and the ÎIn- 



has it becn attclnpted to sho,v that this is a Sacra- 
nlent I? Sho,v that it is not a Sacrament according 
to the definition of the Church of England 2. 
In ,vhat other respects does the Church of 
England differ frolll the Church of ROIne ,vith 
regard to Orders 3 ? 
By whonl ,,-as Tinlothy ordained? (2 Tinl. i. 6.) 
'Vho assisted at 11Ïs ordination? (1 Tiln. iv. 14.) 
Is this prin1Ïtive eustonl observed hy the Church 
of England 1 
.11latrirnony.-Ilo"r is the rite of nlatrimony 
described in a subsequent part of this Article? 
'Vhat is the teaching of the Church of ROllle with 
regard to :\Iatrimony 4 ? Upon ,vhat authority has 
it been attenlpted to sho,\"" that lnatrinlony is a 
Sacrament? (Ephes. v. 32.) What is the word 
translated 'Jnystery in the Greek I\? 'Vhat is the 

postion of hands; but after" :trds, other rites were added; and in 
the 10th centur
', the practice arose of delivering the sacred vessels 
to the priests, and at the same time words were used, which 
assigned to them the power of offering up sacrifices to God. After 
this, five other orders were addeù to the primitive orders of 
Bishops, Priests, and Deacons-naInel)', Subdeacons, Acolyths, 
Exorcists, Readers, and Doorkeepers. [It should he observed, 
however, that in the Church of Rome the three primary orders 
are those of Priest, Deacon, and Subdeacon; Bishop and Presbyter 
being held by them to be of the same order; so that they make 
the number of their orllers to be seven.] 
1 That it was in!5tituted bv Christ. 
2 Though Christ ordaine(l his Apostles, and gave them autho- 
rity to ordain others, 
.et we read of no outward and visible sign 
appointed by Him for this purpose, nor ùid Christ and his Apos- 
tles make use of the same ceremony. Christ breathed on his 
Apostles; the Apostles laid tlwi}" ltaJ
ds 011 those whom the,r or- 
3 The Church of England rejects tl1e inferior orders, which 
cannot be traced up to the primitive times; nor does she recognize 
the sacrificial character of the Priest. 
· Th
t it is a Sacrament instituted by God, and not devised b). 
man. 5 l\IvO'TÍ]fHOV. 



yerSiOll of this passage in the Vulgate l ? Is the 
",'ord nlystery applied in Scripture to other things 
besides Sacranlents? (1 Tinl. iii. 16. Rcy. xvii. 5.) 
How' do JOU understand the ,vords "this is a great 
nlystery" in Ephes. v. 322? When 'vas nlatrinlony 
instituted 3 ? Upon ,yhat gcneral ground do 
conclude that it is no Sacrament' ? 
'Vhat consequence has been dra,,"u fronl nlaking 
nlatrinlon.)'" a Sacranlent 5 ? Docs Scripture sanc- 
tion a divorce under certain rircunlstances? (:Jlatt. 
v. 32.) 'That is the teaching of the Church of 
England ,vith regard to nlatrinlony 6 ? By ,,,,110m 
ought it to be adnlÏnistered 'I ? 
Extreme unction.- What do J'OU mean by ex- 
e 'unction 8 ? Upon ,vhat grounds has it been 
attelnpted to maintain that this is a Sacranlent? 
(James v. 14, 15.) "\Vhat symbolical action ,,"as 
sometimes l)erformed 1)y the Apostles in healing 
the sick? (
Iark vi. 13.) 'Vas this oil the synlbol 
of a benefit wrought on the soul, or of one wrought 
on the body 9? 1Vhy do you conclude that extrcnle 

1 Hoc est magnum sacramentum. 
2 \Vhell St. Paul said, "this is a great mJstery," he was speak- 
ing concerning Christ and the Church; the words ruust therefore 
Le applied to that mJstical union of Christ and his Church, of 
which the marriage bond was a figure. 
3 "In the time of man's innocency." 
4 It does not answer the test. 
5 That the marriage bond is indissoluble. 
6 That it is an honourable estate, instituted of l;od, but not an 
outward sign of an inward grace. 
7 Being a holy estate, instituted by God, it should be adminis- 
tered bJ none but his authorized ministers. 
8 The anointin
 of the sick, with pra
.er for the forgiveness of 
their sins, administered to tlU'ID shortly before their death, and 
therefore called extreme unction. 
9 One wrought upon the bod



unction is no Sacranlent 1 ? "\Vhat renlarkable 
difference is there bet,veen the results of this rite 
as perfonned in the Apostolic tinles, and as no,v 
practised by the Church of ROlne 2 ? 'Vhen do ,ve 
find the first nlention of this rite as 'ltnconnected 
with miraculous gifts 3 ? 'Vhen do ,ye find it 
alluded to again f? For what purpose does it 
appear to have been then used 5? 
'Vhat are the t,yO assertions in the last paragraph 
of this Article? To ,yhich Sacralllent does the 
first assertion refer? Is there any authority in 
Scripture, or in the Prin1Ítive Church, for carrying 
about the Sacralllent of the Lord's Supper? 
In ,vhat persons only, have the Sacranlents a 
 effect and operation? 'Vhat do '
1nean by worthily receiving CI? Against what error 
is this assertion directed 'I ? 
Evidence from ...1 ntiquity.- 'Vhat appears to 
have been the nunlher ofSacranlents acknowledged 
in the Prin1Ítive Church 8 ? Ho,v do you account 

1 Beca.use it was not im;tituted by Christ. and it appears to 
have been merely an outward sign which accompanied the exercise 
of the miraculous gifts, and which therefore ceased when these 
gifts ceased. 
2 In the former case, the sick wpre restored to health; in the 
latter, it immediately precedes their death. 
3 In the 5th century, by Pope Innocent I. 
f Not till the 7th or mil century. 
5 'fhe prayers which then accompanied it show that at that 
time its object was the recovery of the sick. 
G \Vith repentance anI} faith. 
'I Against the enol' that the Sacraments have a mechanical 
effect, ex opere operato, i. e. that the mere receiving of them con- 
race, without reference to the faith of the recipient. 
II The two Sacraments of Baptism and the LQrd's Supper. 



for their not being distinctly detern1Ïned 1 ? 
Sacraments does Justin )Iartyr speak Of2? 
does Tertullian? "\Vhat is the testirnony 
Augustine 3 ? 
When .was it first announced that there were 
seven Sacranlents i? By ,vhat Council ,vas this 
assertion subsequently confirmed 5 ? 

of St. 


Of the unworthiness of the Jfinisters, which hinders not 
the effect of the Sacrament. 
Although in the visible Church the evil be ever min- 
gled with the good, and sometimes the evil have chief 
authority in the l\linistration of the 'V ord and Sacra- 
l11ents; yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their 
own name, but in Christ's, and do minister by his 
commission and authority, we may use their )linistry, 
both in hearing the 'V ord of God, and in receiving of 
the Sacraments. N either is the effect of Christ's ordi- 
nance taken away by their wickedness, nor the grace 
of God's gifts diminished from such as by faith and 

1 Because at that time there was no contr(Jversy on the 
2 J t:STI
 MARTYR.-He speaks only of two sacraments, Baptism 
and the Eucharist. (Apol. 1. 61.) Tertullian joins these two 
together, and saJs nothing of any more. (De Corona ..Lllilitis, 
c. 3.) 
3 ST. AUGUSTINE.-" But the Lord Himself, and the Apostolical 
doctrine delivered instead of man)", but some fen- things, and those 
most easy to be performed, most noble to be understood, and most 
chaste in their observation, such as are the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism, and the celebration of the body and blood of the Lord." 
(De doctr. C!irist. 1. 3.) 
i In the 12th century, by Peter Lombard. 
5 The Council of Trent. 



rightly do receive the Sacrmnents ministered unto 
them; which be effectual, because of Christ's institu- 
tion and promise, although they be Ininistered by evil 
Nevertheless, it appcrtaineth to the discip1ine of the 
Church, that inquiry be nlade of evil 1\Iinisters, and 
that they be accused by those that have knowledge of 
their offences; and finally, being found gui1ty, by just 
judgment be deposed. 

De vi institutionum divinarum, quod eam non toUat 
malitia .J[inistroTum. 

Qualnvis in Ecclesia visibili, bonis mali semper sunt 
adnlixti, atq ue interdum ministerio verbi et Sacramen- 
torum administrationi præsint; tamen cunl non suo 
sed Christi nomine agant, ejusque Inandato et aucto- 
ritate ministrent, illorum ministerio uti licet, cunl in 
verbo Dei audiendo, turn in Sacramentis percipiendis. 
N" eque per illormn malitiam effectus institutorum Christi 
tollitur, aut gratia donorum Dei minuitur, quoad eos 
qui fide et rite sibi oblata percipiunt, quæ propter 
institutionem Christi et promissionem efficacia sunt, 
licet per malos administrentur. 

\d Ecclesiæ tamen discip1inam pertinet, ut in maIos 
ministros inquiratur, accusenturque ab his, qui corum 
flagitia noverint, atque tandem justo convicti judicio 

.L<\gainst ,vhat error is this Article directed 1 ? 
1Vhat do you meah by the Visible Church in this 
Article 2 ? "\Vhat para1les of our Lord exenlplify 
the truth that the evil are ever n1Ïngled ,yith the 
good in the Visible Church? "\Vhat is the Latin 

1 That of supposing that the unworthiness of a )linister hinders 
the effect of the ordinances <Lòministered by him. 
2 Th
 Holy Catholic Church here on earth. 



vcrsion of the expression" have chief authority 1 ?" 
)Vhat is the reason assigned in this Article why 
we Inay use the 111inistry of evil men 2 ? 
The 'llnwo1'thiness of ]Iinisters hinders not the 
effect of the Sacrarnents adlninistered by therJ
'''hat direction did our Lord give to his disciples 
".ith regard to the teaching of the Scribes and 
Pharisees? (l\Iatt. xxiii. 2, 3.) In what sense did 
they sit in !\Ioses
 seat 3? Ho\v does it appear 
that they \vere un,vorthy? But ,vas it neverthe- 
less the duty of the people to attend upon their 
n1Ïnistry? Repeat John vi. 70. To \vhom did 
Christ refer? Did our Lord kno,v the charac- 
ter of Judas before He chose hin1? Did the 
ickedness of Judas ill validate his acts as an 
Apostle? "\Vhat do you infer from these ex- 
an1ples ? 
The R0111ish Church has taught that the inten- 
tion of the n1inister is necessary ill order to lllake 
the Sacr:'l.lllents yalid. "\Vhat is Ineant by this 4 ? 
Is this a question \\yithin the lin1its of hunutn 
investigation? 'Vhat evils result frolll the 111ain- 
tenallce of this opinion S ? 
What is asserted in the last paragraph of this 
1 The Latin word is præsillt, which would be more properly 
translated, h01:e tT,e charge of, or, ate intrusted 'l.rith. 
2 Because they exercise the ministry, not in their own name, 
but in Christ's. 
3 They were his successors in the office of tf'achers of religion. 
4 That the Sacraments are not valid, unless the person admi- 
nistering them intends that they should be so. 
SIt tends to throw doubt and suspicion upon the whole system 
of Christianity, because no one can discern the heart; and there- 
fore, if this opinion be true, no one can certainly ten whether he 
has really been baptized. 



Article? Is it agreeaùle to reason that evil minis- 
ters, \vhen proyed to be such, should be deposed? 
"\Vha t was the character of Eli's sons? (1 Sam. 
ii. l
.) Did Eli take the proper steps to restrain 
thenl? "\Vhat ,,-as threatened to Eli in conse- 
quence? (1 Sanl. iii. 11.) 'Vhat was tIle sin of 
Nadab and Abihu? (Levit. x. 1.) Ho,v \yas that 
sin punished? 'Vhat reason 'vas assigned for this 
severe visitation 1 (Levit. x. 3.) 'Vho was Timo- 
thy? 'Vhat directions 'vere given to hinl ,vith re- 
gard to the discipline of the Church? (1 Tim. 
v. 1. 19, 20. vi. 3-5.) 
'Vhat consideration especially aggravates the 
sins COllllllitted by evil n1Ïnisters 1 ? 
Evidence fro'J]
 Antiquity.-By ,vhom ,vas the 
opinion condeluned in this Article first nlain- 
taincd 2? "\Vho opposed that opinion 3? Quote a 
testilllony fronl 81. Augustine to this point 4. "\Vhat 
is the eyidence of St. Chrysostoll1 5 ? "\Vhat parti- 
cular circlullstances appear to have revived this 
opinion in the 16th century G ? 
Has it always appertained to the discipline of 

1 That they are committed by those whose special office and 
work it is to destroy sin. 
2 By the Donatists, in the early part of the fifth century. 
3 Au
ustine, Bishop of Hippo. 
4 AUGUSTINE.-" Remember that the manners of evil men do 
not hinder the sa.craments of God, so as to make them either not 
to be at all, or less holy." (Aug. cont.literas Petiliani, 1. 2. [110. 
yol. ix. J) 
5 ST. CHRYSOSTü:\I.-" God is wont to work, even by such as arp 
unworthy; and the grace of Baptism is not at all hindered by the 
life of the priest." (Cltrysost. i1
 1 Cor. Hom. B.) 
ð The gross vices practised by the clergy at that time. 



the Church to 111ake inquiry of evil n1inisters I? 
Sho,v this fronl St. Cyprian 2. 


Of Baptism. 
Baptisn1 is not on1 y a sign of profession, and mark 
of difference, \V hereby Christian men are discerned 
from others that be not christened, but it is also a sign 
of Regeneration or new Birth, whereby, as by an in- 
strument, they that receive Baptislll rightly are grafted 
into the Church; the promises of forgiveness of sin, 
and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the 
Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed; Faith is 
confirmed, and Grace increased by virtue of prayer 
unto God. The Baptism of young Children is in any 
wise to be retained in the Church, as most agreeable 
with the institution of Christ. 

De Baptismo. 
Baptismus non est té1ntulll professionis signum, ac 
discriminis nota, qua Christi ani a non Christianis dis- 
cernantur, sed etiam est signum regeneration is, per 
quod, tanqUalll per instrumentum, recte baptismum 
suscipientes, Ecclesiæ inseruntur, promissiones de re- 
missione peccatorum, atque adoptione nostra in fi1ios 
Dei per Spiritum Sanctum visibiliter obsignantur, fides 
confirmatur, et vi divinæ invocationis gratia augetur. 
Baptismus parvulorum om nino in Ecclesia retinen- 
dus est, ut qui cun1 Christi institutione optime con- 

I Alwa)"s ; as may be f;een from the decrees of the Councils. 
2 ST. CYPRJAN.-" As to Felicissimus the deacon, let him know 
that he is cast out from among us ; inasmuch as besides his frauds 

nd robberies, of which we are very certain that be is guilt)., he 
18 also charged with adultery." (CYlw. E})ist. 38. Ep. 41. Oxf. Ed.) 



What is the subject of this Article? What is 
the origin of the ,vord Baptism, I? Ho,v is Bap- 
tisnI defined in this Article? 'Vhat is the Latin 
version of the ,vords ",,,hereby Christian men are 
discerned froll1 others that be not christened 2 ?" 
What do you mean by a sign 3? In "That sense is 
Baptisnl a sign'? "\Vhat is the Ineanillg of the 
,vord "regeneration 5 ?" 'Vhat is the nIeaning of the 
expression, "they that receive baptism rightly G ?" 
Distinguish between rightly and 'worth' 7. 'Vhat 
l)assage of Scripture illustrates the expression, 
"are grafted into the Church?" (Ronl. xi. 24, &c.) 
How. is the saIne thing expressed in other ,vords 
in the Church CatechisnI 8? "\Vhat particular bene- 
pts are declared to be pron1Ïsed in Baptism? \Vhat 
do you understand by grace 9? What then are 
the three benefits conferred in Baptisnl 10 ? 
1Vhat is the Latin version of the wOlds, "as 1110st 
agreeable ,vith the institution of Christ Il ?" 

1 I tis delived from the Greek word ßa7rT;
W, to immerse; though 
in the sacred writers the word is used to denote any washing, whe. 
the I' by dipping 01' sprinklin
. (Vide 1\lark vii. 4. Luke xi. 38.) 
2 Qua Christiani a non Christianis discernantur. 
3 A sign may denote either a mark of something that has taken 
place, or a mark of somet/tin,</ to be conferred. 
.s Of something to be conferred. 
5 New Birth. 
6 In the way appointed by Christ. 
7 Riglttl!/ refers to the manner of administering; 'lC01ilLily to the 
diSjJo:;it lon of tlte recipient. 
8 "'Vhereill I was a member of Christ." 
9 The holy principles and desires given to us by the Holy Spirit. 
10 Forgiveness of sins; adoption into the family of God; and 
the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit. 
11 "U t qui cum institutione Christi optime congruat ;" as is 'Ce1"Y 
accordant with tlte institution of Christ. 



The Sacrament of Baptisrn.-Define a Sacra- 
luent. 1Vhat is the 1natter, or outward sign, in 
Baptisn1 1 ? \Vhat is the for1n 2? 'Vhat is the 
institution 3? '\Vhat is the effect 
? Ho'v is the 
effect, or the inward grace, of BaptisIl1 expressed in 
the Church Catechism? Repeat our Lord's ,vords 
in John iii. 3. How does He further explain his 
lnealling in the 5th yerse? Ho,v does 8t. Paul 
describe Baptisnl? (Titus iii. 5.) How is God 
said to purify and cleanse his Church? (Ephe- 
sians v. 26.) Hho,v the analogy between the na- 
tural and the spiritual birth 5. Show froBl Scrip- 
ture that the forgiveness of sins is connected ,vith 
Baptisnl. (Acts ii. 38.) Ho,v is the saIne thing 
Í111plied by .i..\.nanias? (Acts xxii. 16.) Ho"'
it appear that by 111eans of Baptisnl w.e are adn1Ítted 
into the family of God? (Gal. iii. 26.) Ho'v are 
these ",.ords further eXplained in the following 
verse? 'Vhat is the origin of the expression 
"have put on Christ 6 ?" What is the third benefit 

1 'Vater. 
2 In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the HoI)' 
3 The command of Christ (l\latt. xxviii. }9). 
4 Regeneration, including the three benefits stated above. 
S "As we are not naturally men without birth, so neither are 
we Christian men in the eJe of the Church of God, but b)' new 
birth ; nor according to the manifest ordinary course of Divine 
dispensation new born, but by that ßaptism which both declareth 
and maketh us Christians." (lIooker, book v. 
6 The expression" have put on" is a technical term; the per. 
SOIl about to be baptized went duwn into the water with his ordi- 
nar.y clothes, and, upon coming up again from the water, received 
n. new robe, called the chrJsom. 
G 2 



conferred in Baptisll1? Sho,v that the gift of the 
Holy Spirit is connected ,vith Baptisnl in Scrip- 
ture. (Acts ii. 38, last clause.) 'Vhat does St. 
Paul connect ,vith the ,vashing of regeneration? 
(Titus iii. 5, last clause.) HO"T is our Lord's bap- 
ti:Slll distinguished from that of John? (l\Iatt. 
iii. 11.) 

.\.re the benefits conferred in Baptism absolute 
or conditional? "\Vhat is covenanted OIl the part 
of those to ,,'hOIl1 they are pron1Ïsed 1 ? What do 
these conditions require from every baptized per- 
son, in order that he nlay receive the full privi- 
leges of Daptism 2? "\Vhat is promised to hilll in 
orùer that he n1ay perform thelll 3? IIo\y is this 
work of the Spirit distinguished from regenera- 
tion? (Titus iii. 5.) IIo,v is the sallle distinction 
drawn in the Collect for ChristInas Day' ? 
Inf(tnt Baptism.- 'Vhat reason is given in this 
Article ,vhy Infant Baptism is to be retained in the 
Church? Sho\v ho,v it agrees with that institu- 
tion 5. "\Vhat 'vas the rite of adnlission into the 
J e,vish church? At ,vhat age 'vas that rite ap- 
pointed to be administered? 'Vhat conclusion do 
you dra,v fronl hCl'ce w.ith regard to the Baptism of 

1 Repentance, faith, and obedience. 
2 A hearty forsaking of sin, a stedfast belief in the promises 
of God, and a sincere obedience to his will. 
3 The gift of the Holy Spirit. 
4 "Grant that we, being regenerate, and made thy children by 
adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit." 
5 Nations consist of persons of all ages, and therefore infants 
as well a
 adults must have been included in the command. 


1 ')"" 

InL'tnts I? "\Vhat is the passage of Scripture ,vhich 
is selected as the Gospel in tlle service for tIle Bap- 
tism of Infants? C
Iark x. 13-16.) 'Vhat infer- 
ence does the Church dra,v from these ,yords in 
the exhortation \vhich foUo\ys? Repeat] Cor. 
vii. 14. "\Vith regard to what case does St. Paul 
give directions in that passage? What benefit 
does he mention incidentally as arising to the chil- 
dren of such parents, supposing them to ren1ain 
together? "\Vhat is the inference? Ho\v are we 
to account for there being no direct cOlllllland in 
Scripture for baptizing Infants 2 ? Was circunlcision 
of the nature of a covenant? Did this circulll- 
stance prevent the Je,vish child from being admit- 
ted into that covenant before he was able to per- 
form the conditions? 'Vhat provision is made in 
the Christian Church to nleet this difficulty 3? Are 
children bound to pelform the pronlÌse so made 
for them, \vhen they come to age? 'Vhy 4? 'Vllat 
is the nature of the promise nlade by godfatllers 
and godmothers in baptism 5 ? 

1 If infants were admitted into the family of God under the 
rigorous covenant of the Law, à fo.rti01.i may we expect to find that 
they are ('apable of admission into that famil)' under the covenant 
of grace. 

 Partly because it was a thing to which the Jews were already 
accustomed in the case of circumcision, and partly because for 
obvious reasons those first admitted into the Church must han' 
been adults. 
3 Godfathers and godmothers are appointed, who promise in 
behalf of the child. 
4- Because all men are bound to do the will of God as soon 
as ever it is made ImOWIl to them; and because none ('an partake 
of the benefits, who do not stand to the conditions of the covenant. 
S They promise that the child shall be instructed ill his duties, 
as soon ab he shall be able to learn. 
G 3 



Evidence fi'om Antiq'llity.-Did the Priulitive 
Christians consider that Regeneration ,vas the effect 
of Baptisul I? 1Vhat is the language of Justin 
J\Iartyr on this point 2 1 Of St. Chr.rsostom S 1 Of 
St. Athanasius 4 ? 
Does it appear from the early Fathers that 
Infant Baptisnl,vas general1y practised 5 1 [What 
is the testimony of Justin )lartyr to this point 61] 
Of Irenmus 7 1 Of Origen 8 ? Of St. Cyprian 9? 
L'Vhat question ,vas raised in the African council 

1 They all speak of Baptism as the sign and seal of regeneration. 
2 J USTl
 :MARTYR.-" It is unlawful for :any to partake of the 
Eucharist, save him who believes in the truth of our doctrines, 
and who has been washed in the bath for the 'rem.ission of sins, 
and for regeneration." (.lust. .J.1Iart. Apol. i. 
:I CHRYSOSTml.-" B.r means of water we are regenerated." 
(Chrysost. in Jult. Hom. 85.) 
f ATHANASIUS.-" He that is baptized puts off the old man, and 
is renewed, as being regenerated (åVWOfV j'fVV1]OfÌ!;) by the grace 
of the Spirit." (Atltan. in illud, " Quicunque dixerit," ð:C.) 
5 [\Ve find it alludcd to as the common usage of the Church, 
derived from the institution or practice of the Apostles.] 
IARTYR.-He 8peaks of baptism being to Christians 
in the stead of circumcision.] 
7 IRENÆus.-" Christ came to save all men b)' Himself; all, I 
mean, who by Him are born again to God ; i.1
(allts, children, 
boys, )"ouths, and older mcn; therefore He passeù through every 
age." (b.e71æus, 
 ii. c. 22.) 
8 ORIGEN.-" Young children are baptized into the remission 
of sins." (Ot'igen in Luc. Hom. 14.) 
9 CYPRIAN.-" :Moreov( r, if to the greatest sinners, and to thos6 
who have offended God a long time since, )'et afterwards believe 
in Him, remission of sins is granted, and no one is debarrf'd 
from receiving baptism and grace; how much more ought not 
these benefits to be denied to an infant, who being but newly honl 
hath as )'et no way sinned, except that, being horn in the flesh 
according to Adam, lie hath contracted the contagion of the old 
death from his vel.Y hirth, who is the more ea
il)" admitted to 
receive remission of sins upon this very account, because he hath 
no sins of his own to be remitted, but only those of others." 
(Cyp'I'ían, Ep. 59.) 




held under Cyprian A. u. 253]? Ho,v ,vas it de- 
cided? 'Vhat inference ùo you draw'1] 'Vhat 
direction IS gIven ill the Apostolical Constitu- 


Of the Lord's Supper. 
The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love 
that Christians ought to have among themselves one to 
another; but rather is a Sacrament of out" Redemption 
by Christ's death: insomuch that to such as rightly, 
worthily, and with faith, receive the same, the Breaù 
which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ; 
and likewise the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the 
Blood of Christ. 
Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of 
Bread and 'Vine) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be 
proved by holy \V rit; but is repugnant to the plain 
words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacra- 
n1ent, and hath given occasion to many superstitions. 

1 [A Council was held A.D. 253 in Africa under Cyprian, at 
which 66 bishops were present. Amongst the subjects pro- 
pounded for decision at this CuunciJ, one was whether the analogy 
of circumcision was to be so stricti)' adhered to, that baptism 
should not be administered to infants till the eighth day. Cyprian 
:md the bishups with him decided that children Illight be baptized 
under eight da)'s old; and they held that to suffer a child to die 
unbaptized was to endanger its salvation. It appears therefore 
from hence that there wa::; then no doubt or uncertainty as to the 
duty of baptizing infants; the only question being, whether it was 
right to baptize them before the ei
hth day from their birth.] 
2 "He who says, when I die, I will be L'l"ptized, in order that 
I ma)' nnt sin and defile ill)' baptism; that man is ignorant to- 
warùs God, and forgetful of his nature. 'farry not to turn to the 
Lord, but baptize even 
'our children, and bring them up in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord; for He says, 'Suffer littlechil- 
dren to come Ullto me, and forbid themllot.'" (Const.A} 
G 4 



The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the 
Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. 
And the mean whereby the body of Christ is received 
and eaten in the Supper is Faith. 
The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by 
Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, 
or worshipped. 

De Cæna Domini. 

Cæna Domini non est tantum signum mutuæ bene- 
volentiæ Christianorum inter sese, verum potius est 
Saera1nentull1 nostræ per nlortem Christi redemptionis. 
Atque adeo, rite, digne, et cum fide sumentibus, 
panis quel11 frangimus est eommunieatio corporis Christi; 
similiter POCUhU11 benedietionis est eommunieatio san- 
guinis Christi. 
Panis et vini transubstantiatio in Eueharistia, ex saeris 
literis probari non potest. Sed apertis Scripturæ ver- 
bis adversatur, 
aeramenti naturam evertit, et multa- 
rum superstitionum dedit oceasionem. 
Corpus Christi datnr, aeeipitur, et mandueatur in 
Cæna, tantum cælesti et spirituali ratione. l\Iedium 
autem quo corpus Christi accipitur et manducatur in 
Crena, fiùes est. 
Sacramentum Eucharistiæ ex institutione Christi non 
servabatur, circumferebatur, elevabatur, nee adorabatur. 

What are rue t,vo Sacralncnts ordained by Christ? 
By ".hat other name is the Lord's Supper some- 
times called 1 ? What authority have we for call- 
ing this bacralllent the Lord's Supper? (1 Cor. 
xi. 20.) 'Vhat lo,v vie\v have SOllle persons held 
,vith regard to the Sacranlent of Baptisnl 2? 1Vhat 

1 Tlte EllcTtarz.I1t, or giving of t}lauks; so called because our Lord 
introduced the ordinance with a form of thanksgiving. It is also 
called the Huly COllt'lJl,lmion, from the expressions in I Cor. x. 16. 
2 That it is merely a sign of profcssion, and mark of differcnce. 
See page 121, .Art. 27. 



with rcgard to the Supper of the LordI? "nat is 
it the desio'n of this .Article to 8ho".2? How is 
this expressed in the Article? In ,vhat sense do 
JOU understand the ,,,"ord Sacraulcllt in that pas- 
sage 3 ? To 'VhOlll are the bread and ,vine in the 
Lorù's Supper a partaking of the body and blood 
of Christ? Distinguish between r'l'ghtly and 
'wortkily 4. 'Vhat is meant hy the expression, "a 
partaking of the body of Christ:\ ?" 
What is the .J[ atte')
 in the Lord's Supper? Thp 
D. l Tl I . . 2 (1 C . 
 - ) 
l' 01 In . Ie nst
t1,lt'lOn . or. Xl. _":r, -v. 
The Effect 6? Ilow ,vould you distinguish between 
the effects of the hvo Sacraments upon the worthy 
recipient 7 ? For exanlple: there is a difference 
bebveen granting and ')1enewing a lease. 'Vhich 
,vould be represented by Baptism? 1V11Ïch by the 
Lorù's Supper? Repeat Luke xxii. 19, last clause. 
1Vhat do you infer fronl this expression ,vith regard 
to the Lord's Supper 8? 1Vhy is not this 11len- 
tioned in the ...i\.rticle 9 ? Repeat l\Iatt. xxvi. 28. 
Ho". does St. Paul express the benefits of the 
Lord's Supper to the faithful? (I Cor. x. 16.) 
1Yhat ancient cuStOlll is referred to in that pas- 

1 That it is merel)' a sign of remembrance, and an act of love. 
2 That it is both a sign and a means of grace. 
3 In the sense in which it is defined in the Church Cat<,chism. 
4 See I'a
e 122, note 7. _ 
S A partaking of that redemption which the body of Christ ha.s 
obtained. 6 The same benefits enumerated in Baptism. 
7 BJ the Sacrament of Baptism he is admitted into the covenant, 
which in the Lord's Supper he rat
fies and confirms. 
8 That it is an act of commemoration. 
9 Probab]y because it was never disputed. 
G 5 



sage 1 ? 110,,," is the sanle allusion made else- 
,vhere? (1 Cor. v. 7.) How ùoes our Lord sho"T 
the necessity of thus spiritually partaking of IIinl? 
(John vi. 53-56.) 
Transubstantiation.- 'Vhat is 11lcant by tran- 
 2? IIo"T has it bccn attenlpted to 
reconcile this doctrine ,vith reason S? For ,vhat 
cause is this doctrine condenlllcd in this Article? 
Upon ,,-hat Scripture authority do the Ronlanists 
rest their bclief in this doctrine? (
Iatt. xxvi. 26, 
last clause, and John vi. 53, &c.) 
latt. xxvi. 26, last clause. IIad Christ's 
body been literally broken at that tÎnle ? Or his 
blood shed? 1Vhat ordinance ,vas lIe celebrating 
at the tinle that He instituted this Sacrament? 
IIo,v ,vas the lanlb in that ordinance described? 
Supposing the ,yords of the institution ,vere to be 
understood in tlleir literal sense, ,vhat ,vould the cup 
becolne? \Vhat does our Lord can the ,vine after it 
has been cOllsecrated? (1\Iatt. xxvi. 29.) And St. 
Paul? (1 Cor. xi. 26.) Repeat I Cor. xi. 29. 1Vhat 
is mcant by the expression "not discerning the 

1 That of feasting upon the victim in order to partake of the 
benefit of the sacrifice. 
2 The doctrine that in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper the 
bread and wine are actually converted into the flesh and blood of 
3 I t is assulPpd that all material substances consist of two parts, 
stlbstance and accidents; the substance heing F.omething invisible 
:md impalpabJe, the accidents both visible and t:mgiLle. It is 
then asserted that this substance not coming under the cognizance 
of our senses, may undergo a transformation, the accidents still 
remaining the same. 



Lord's body 1 1" In \vhat sense do we understand 
the ,yords "This is 111Y body 2 1" 
J ohn vi. 53. Is it quite clear that these 
\vords refer to the Holy Conlnlunion? Show from 
our Lord's o\vn ,vords, in the same chapter, that it 
could not be in a literal sense that he spake of 
giving his flesh to eat. (verse 63.) 
IIo\v docs this doctrine overthrow the nature of 
a Sacral11ellt 3? To \yhat superstitions has it given 
rise 4 ? 
H'istory of Transubstantiation.- When did dis- 
cussion first arise as to the manner of Christ's pre- 
sence in this Sacralllent 5? \Vhat was the occasion 
of it ? 'Vhat progress did the doctrine nlake in 
the 9th century 6? IIo\v long a period may be said 
to have elapsed from the institution of the Lord's 
Supper before disputation arose as to the nlanner 
of Christ's presence in that Sacrament 7 1 'Vhen 
did the controversy again revive 8 1 'Vhcn ,vas the 

1 Not distinguishing that consecrated bread and wine, which 
represents Christ's body, from urdinary food. 
2 This represents my body, and spiritually becomes such to the 
faithful recipi
nt. 3 It destroys the outward and visible sign. 
4 See the last paragraph of this Article. 
S In the eighth century controversy arose about image-worship, 
in which it was decJared that the consecrated elements were the 
image of Christ. This opinion was, however, condemned by the 
Council of Nice. 
6 In the ninth century the doctrine of the bodily presence was 
openly asserted by Paschase Radbert, a :French abbot; but he 
was refuted by several eminent writers of that timt>, such as Raban 

laur, B
rtram, and John Scot. The ohject of Bertram.s book 
was to explain the difference between figurative and literal expres- 
siulls; and his doctrine with regard to the Lord's Suþper was the 
same with that of the Church of England. 
7 Eight hundred ,years. 
8 About the middle of the eleventh century. The doctrine 
G 6 

l o


doctrine of the real corporeal presence first puLlicly 
decreed to be a doctrine of Scripture I? 1Vhen 
,vas the ternl Transubstantiation first known 2 ? 
IIo,,," is the Body of Christ said in this Article 
to be given, taken, and eaten? Against ,yhat doc- 
trine docs this assertion appear to be directed 3 ? 
'Vhat is the difference Lehyeen transubstantiation 
and consubstantiation 4? 1Vhat is the nlean by 
,vhich the Body of Christ is receiyed 5 ? IIo\v is 
this expressed in other ,vords in the Church Cate- 
chislll? To illustrate this by Scripture; Christ is 
said to be our life. 1Vhy is He so called 6? 'Vhat 
is the 111ean by ,yhich lIe becolnes our life? The 
bread and the ,vine in the Lord's SUI)per are said 
to be Iris Body and Blood. "\Vhy are they so 
called 7 ? Ho,v do they become so to us ? 
"\Vhat is nleant b
" reserving the Sacranlent 8 ? 
'Vhy is this practice condenlned 9 ? 'Vas it an 
ancient practice? "\Vhat appears to haye been 

appears to ha\'emarleway during the ign()ranceofthe tenth century; 
and in the eJeventh, Bruno, Bishop of Angiers, and Berengarius, 
his archdeacon, maintainell the doctrine of Bertram; Berengar, 
however, recanted two or three times. , 
t In the year 1215, by a decree of the third Lateran council. 
2 In the 13th century, having been invented by Stephen, Bishop 
of Autun. 
3 That of consubstantiation. 
, The doctrine of transubstantiation is that t11e body and blood 
of Christ are the bread and wine; of consubstalltiatiou, that they 
are 1ritlt tbe bread and wine. 
s Faith. 6 Because through Him we obtain life. 
7 Because they become so to us. 
8 Keeping back a portion of the consecrated elements, for the 
11Ul'pose of giving them to the Bick, or to other absent persons at 
some future time. 
!I Because it is not a part of Christ's ordinance. 



the reason 1 ? What is tho ceren1011Y of carrying 
about tho Sacranlcnt 2 ? From what error do this 
and the following practices spring? 
Evidence from Antiquity.-Did the Primitiye 
Christians belicve that the Body and Blood of 
Christ w'ore received by the faithful, in the Lord's 
Supper 3 ? "\Vhat is the testin10ny of Cyril of 
J erusaleul on this point ( ? 
'Vhen did cOlltrOyersy first arise ".ith regard to 
transubstantiation? IIo,,
 does it appear indirectly 
that the early Christians did not hold this doc- 
trine 5? "\Vhat is the testinlony of Tertulliall on 
this point 6? Of St. Augustine 7? Ho,v does Ter- 

] Because in the early period of the Church, priests were not 
numerous, and it was not an easy thing to procure the Lord's 
2 Amongst the Romanists, the host is carried in procession to 
the sick. I t is also lifted 'Up by the priest in the service of the 
mass, in order that it may be 'lcorslâpped. These errors arise from 
the doctrine of transubstantiation. 
3 They speak of that Sacrament as a vehicle of Christ's spiritual 
4 CYRIL.-" 'Vith all persuasion let us partake of it as of the 
Body aud Blood of Christ; for under the type of bread his Body 
is given to thee, and under the type of wine his Blood is given to 
thee; that partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, thou ma)'- 
est be of one Bod)" and Blood with Him." (Cyril. Hier. Catech. 
J,[ !}st. 4, 
â Onc of the charges brought against the early Christians by 
their heathen persecutors, was that tlley were cannibals; the par- 
ties who made it, hearing that Christians met together to partake 
of the Body and Bloorl of Christ, supposed that it wasofthe earthl)', 
whereas it was of the hea\"enlJ" bod)" that they partook. The 
mistake is so explained by lrenæus, and the by which the 
Christians met this calumny was, that so far from devourinO' 
human flesh, they did not count it lawful to eat the blood of mer
aIJimals. (See Blunt's Sketch of the Chw'ch, p. J 65.) 
6 TERTt:LLIAX.-" The bread which our Saviour touk and dis- 
tributed to his disciples, he made his own Body, sa
'illg, This is 
my bod)", that is, the figure of 'my body." (1èrtuU. ad Jllarcion. 
J. iv. c. 40.) 
E.-" The Lord did not hesitate to say, , This is 



tullian comment upon the ,yords in John vi. 53, 
&c. 1 ? Can all the staternents of the early Fathers 
be depended upon with refercnce to the manner 
of Christ's prescnce in the Lord's Supper 2 ? 


Of the TVicked which eat not the Body of Christ in 
the use of the Lord's Supper. 
The 'Vickeù, and such as be void of a lively faith, 
although they do carnally anù visibly press with their 
teeth (as St. Augustine saith) the Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood of Christ; yet in no wise are they 
partakers of Çhrist; but rather, to their conùemnation, 
do eat and drink the sign or Sacrament of so great a 
De manducatione Corporis Christi, et impios illud 
non manducare. 
Impii, et fide viva destituti, licet carnal iter et visi- 
biliter (ut .A ugustinus loquitur) corporis et sanguinis 
Christi Sacranlenttlnl dentibus prernant, nullo tmnen 
modo Christi participes efficiuntur. Sed potius tantæ 
rei Sacranlentum, seu Symbolurn, ad judicium sibi 
manducant et bibunt. 

my Body,' when He was giving tlte sign of his BodJ." (Aug. cont. 
Adeilltantum. Ed. Bell. turn. viii. p. 124.) 
1 TERTULLIAN.-" They thought his saying hard and intolerable; 
as though He was literally aLout to give his flesh to be eaten Ly 
them." (Tertullian, De refJUr. earn. c. 37.) 
2 It must be remembered that their sentiments were written 
before any such gross error as transubstantiation had arisen, or 
was anticipated; therefore they often expre!'s themselves in 
unguarded term
, and do not always convey that preciseness of 
meaning which is now necessary. It is very JJrobable too, that 
some exaggerated expressions, which have fallen from them in 
reference to this subject, have prepared the way for the ductrine 
-of transubstantiation. 



..A.gainst ,vhat opinion is this Article directed 1 ? 
IT pOll ,vhat error docs that opinion depend 2? 'Vho 
are meant by the wickcd 3? "\Vhat is to be under- 
stood by bcing "partakers of Christ. ?" IIo,v does 
it appear that the ,vicked do not partake of Christ 
in that Sacranlcnt 5 ? Repeat] Cor. xi. 29. 'Vhat 
is llleant by the,vord "dalunation" in thatpassage 6 1 
IIo,y nlay persons be said to receive the SaCralllCnt 
unworthily 7? Is then a !)crson ,vho declines to 
receive it at all, free from sin 8 ? 
Evidence fro1n ....1 ntiquity.- Ho,v does Origen 
attest the truth declared in this Article 9 ? How 
is the sanle thing expressed by J eron1e 10? 'Vhat 
Father is qùoted in the Article? What are his 
,vords 11 ? 

1 The opinion that the Sacrament has a mechanical effect, (ex 
opere opera to,) with little or no reference to the dispositiun of the 
2 That of transubstantiation. 
3 Persons quite ahandoned, as distinguished from persons of 
better moral character, but without lively faith. 
4 Pm-takers of the redemption which Christ has obtained. 
S Because the mean by which Christ is received is faith, which 
the)' have not. 
6 Condemnation, and cOnse(luently punishment. The Greek 
word is ICpi/l,fl. 
7 There are many degrees of unworthiness, such as going with- 
out any intention of amending, without serious thought before- 
hand, with irreverence, &..c. 
II Certainly not; because he is commanded to receive it, and 
the covenant. into which he entered at Baptism must be renewed. 
.-" Christ is the true food; whosoever eats Him shall 
live for ever; of whom no wicked person can eat; for if it were 
possi\)le that any who continues wicked sho
ld eat the Word 
that W.18 made fh'sh, it had never been written, "Vhoso eats this 
bread shall live for ever.'" (Orl.r;en. Comment. in )Jatt. c. 15.) 
10 J ERO
IE.-" They that are not holy in body and 
pÏ1-it, do nei- 
ther eat tIle flesh of Jesus, nor drink his blood; of which He 
said, , He that eats my flesh and drinks my blood, hath eternal 
life.'" (Jerome in cap. 66. Isaiæ.) 
11 AUGUSTINE.-" He that does not abide in Christ, and in whom 


Of both kinds. 
The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the Lay- 
people: for both the parts of the Lord's Sacrament, by 
Christ's ordinance and commandment, ought to be 
tninistered to all Christian 111en alike. 

De utraque specie. 
Calix D0111ini laicis non est denegandus; utraque 
enim pars Donlinici Sacramenti, ex Christi institutione 
et præcepto, omnibus Christianis ex æq no adnlinistrari 
What is the as:':crtion of this Article? 1Vhat 
reason is giyen for this assertion? 
 that by the ordinance and cOllllnandment 
of Christ, the Cup of the Lord ought to be n1inis- 
tered to all Christian l)cople alike. (:\Iatt. xxvi. 27.) 
Does it appcar from Scripture that our Saviour's 
cOllunand 'vas so undcrstood? (1 001'. xi. 26-28, 
&c.) By ,,-hat ürgument has it been attel11pted to 
sho,v that the Cup ought not to be n1Ïnistered to 
the laity t? ''"'"hat is the fallacy of this argument 2 ? 
',hat erroncous doctrine appcars to have given 
risc to this practice 3 ? 
Christ does not abide, certainly does not spiritually eat his flesh, 
nor drink his blood, though he m
y visibly and carnally press with 
his teeth the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ; but he 
rather eats and drinks the Sacrament of so great a matter to his 
condemnation." (.August. Tract. 26 in Joan.) 
1 It has been asserted that the commandment, "Drink ye aU 
of this," was delivered to the Apostles, and is not therefore binding 
on the lai tJ. 
2 If our Lord's words were to be 80 understood, they would 
limit the Lord's Supper altogether to the priests. 
3 That of transubstantiation. Believing that the bread and wine 
were actually changed into the body and blood of Christ, they 
believed also that Christ was received whole and entire in either 



'Vhen ""as the error conden1ncd in this Article, 
established I? In ,vhat words did the Council of 
Constance justify this departure fronl !u'inÚtivc 
practice 2? IIad this error been heard of at an 
earlier l)eriod in the Church 3? Ho,y ,vas it COll- 
dcnuled by St. Cyprian 4 ? 


Of the one oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross. 
The offering of Christ once lllade is that perfect 
redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the 
sins of the whole world, both original and actual; and 
there is none other satisfaction for sin, but that alone. 
'Vherefore the sacrifices of 
Iasses, in the which it was 
commonly said, that the Priest did offer Christ for the 
quick and the dead, to have remission of pain or guilt, 
were blasphemous fables, and dangerous deceits. 
De unica Christi oblatione in cruce perfecta. 
Oblatio Christi semel facta, perfecta est redemptio, 
propitiatio, et satisfactio pro omnibus peccatis totins 
mundi, tan1 originalibus, quam actualibus; neque præ- 

1 In the year 1414, by the Council of Constance. 
2 "Christ did institute this Sacrament in both ldnds, and the 
faithful in the primitive Church did receive in both kinds; yet a 
practice being reasonably brought in to avoid some dangers and 
scandals, they appoint the custom to continue, of consecra ting in 
both kinds, and of giving to the laity only in one kind; since Christ 
was entire and truly under each kind." (Cone. Const. Sess. II.) 
3 III St. Cyprian's time there were some who thought it un- 
necessary to use 'lCine in the Sacrament; the). therefore used water 
only, anù hence were caned Aquarii. . 
.-" If it be not lawful to loose anyone of the least 
commands of Christ, how much more is it unlawful to break so 
great and so weighty a one, that does so very nearly relate to the 
Sacrament of our Lord's passion, and of our redemption, or by 
all). human institution to change it into that which is quite differ- 
ent from the Divine institution." (Cypr. Ep. 63.) 



ter illam unicam est una alia pro peccatis expiatio; 
unde Inissarum sacrificia, quibus vulgo dicebatur, sacer- 
dotelTI oflcrre Christum in remissionem pænæ aut cul- 
pæ, pro vivis et defunctis, blasphema figmenta sunt, et 
perniciosæ in1posturæ. 

What does this Al:ticle assert \vith regard to the 
offering of Christ once nlade 1 Is there any other 
satisfaction for sin but this? 1Vhat doctrine of 
t})e Romish Church is opposed to this truth? IIow 
are such sacrifices denounced in this Article? 
'Vhat is the Ron1Îsh doctrine of the sacrifice of 
mass I? 1Vhat is the origin of the "
ord nlass 2 ? 
1Vhat is the Latin \yord translated pain in this 
Articlc 3 ? 'Vhy is the latter clause of this Article 
put in the past tense 4? In \vhat respect are such 
sacrifices blasphen
o1ls fables 5? In ,,
hat respect 

1 It is maintained that because the bread and wine are changed 
hy consecration into the real Body and 
Iood of Christ, therefore 
Christ is offered up to God by the priest at each celebration of the 
Eucharist, so that he presents to God a propitiatory sacrifice, which 
is available both for the living and the dead. Hence the wealthy 
are induced to give money, in model' that masses may be said for 
them, and these are called solitary masses. 
2 It is derived from the Latin missa. The ancient service of 
the Church was divided into two parts, at the conclusion. of the 
first part of which all but the faithful were dismissed with the 
words, " I te, missa est "'cclesia," whence the service commencing 
at that point obtained the name of missio, missa, or mass. 
3 Pælla, puni:shment. 
" This Article was drawn up in the time of Edward VI., and 
before the decrees of the council of Trent were published; it 
was therefore probably put by the Reformers in the past tense, 
in the hope that the Romauists might be induced to alh.r this 
monstrous doctrine. 
S Because they derogate from the sufficiency of the one sacrifice 
of Christ. 



are they dangerous deceits I? 'Vhat IS the Latin 
version of the ,yords, " dangerous deceits 2 1" 
"\Yhat pa
sa6es of Scripture are opposed to the 
doctrine of the nlass 3 1 Sho,y that Christ was 
offered once for all. (He1. ix. 26. Heb. x. ] 0.) 
Sho\v that this offering '
as a pelfect satisfaction 
for sin. (If eb. ix. 2:5. Heb. x. 
6.) By what rea- 
soning has it been attel11ptecl to reconcile the 
doctrine of the mass with these l)asSc'1,ges of Scrip- 
ture'? "\Vhat is the fallacy of this reasoning 5 1 
"\Vhat is a sacrifice 6 1 Is this word used in dif- 
ferent senses in Scripture 1 "\Vhat, for exanlple, is 
said to be a sacrifice in Psalnl cxli. 2 7 ? In Psalnl 
Ii. 17 8 1 In Hebrews xiii. 15 9 1 In Phil. iv. 18 10 1 
What kind of sacrifice is illlplied in the ,yord Eu- 
charist 11? In what other respects llla)" the Eucha- 
rist be calleel a sacrifice 12 ? How do these vie,vs of 

1 Because they encourage wickedness, b)' holding out an ea
method of pardon. 
2 Perniciosæ imposturæ. 
3 All those which speak of the full, perfect, and sufficient sacri- 
fice of Christ. 
4 It has been asserted that the offering of the priest in the mass 
is a cOllti1tuatim
 of the same sacrifice. 
5 It assumes that Christ is still suffering. In the sacrifice of 
mass, either Christ suffers, or he does not suffer; if He suffers, 
He is not 
itting at the right hand of God; if He does not suffer, 
it is no sacrifice. 
6 An offering made to God. [ST. AUGUSTI:NE says: "A true 
sacrifice is any work done, to keep us joined in holy union with 
d, referred to Him as our sovereign good, in whom we may 
enJoy true felicit
.." (Aug. de Cirit. Dei, lib. x. Co 6.)] 
7 Prayt>r. 8 Repentance. 9 Praise. 
10 Acts of charitv. 11 ThanksfTi"inO'. 
12 [There is an offering made in it of our alms and oblatio1ls. 
:\'"ot however that the mato.ial offering is a sacrifice to God, for it 



a f'acrifice differ from that of the Romani ;;ts, with 
regard to the sacrifice of the maS:-5 1 ? 
Ecidellce from Antiquity.-By \vhat argument 
does it appear indirectly that the Primitive Chris- 
tians did not consider the Eucharist a:: a propiti. 
atury sacrifice 2 ? 'Vhat is the te:-5timony of Justin 
7 on this point 3? [Of Tertullian 4?] Of St. 
Augustine I? Ìn ,,-hat sense did they consider 
the Eucharist as a 
acrifice e ? 

goes entirely to the use of man; but that our act of charit)., "ben 
religiow,l)' int
nded and ûffered through Chri'-t, is a fpiritual 

rriu, acceptable to God. There is alc;o in the Hol). Communion 
the sacrifice ûf 'Pray r, of praÏle and tlwllbgiring, of p_nitew:e, of 
faitlt, of humili.ty; and that \\ hich is called in this service the 
TetJ.lfjnaUe,lldy, aT 1[;7: [1/ .rifice CJf (jurså ., CJur BfJUú and lxxlia, 
t) GOO.] 
· The Romallists teach that it is an ezpiat .Jry sacrifice. 
2 They were reproached by the heathens, because th
ir religion 
had no allan or IaCrißceI; and they never defended themselves by 
ing that they had a sacrifice in the propitiatory sen
e in the 
3 .J I:STI 
IARn R.-" Christians have no other sacrifice but 
.ers and prai ." (Ju i" J[artyr, Ap<1. 2.) 
4 [Tl.RTI:LLlA
.-" That we ou,!ht n(lt to offer unto God earthly, 
but spiritual sacrifices, we ma
' learn from what ib \\rittkn: 1'1t.e 
.u;rifir (jf G( I ÍI an llUml.k and ro trile 'Pirit; and el"ewh
Off r unt(J r;od the rifice .J.f tltanksgiring, an1 lay tl y 't.JZt:, unto 
tI J[ ú J J igh 0 So then, the spiritual Sdcrifices of prai
e are 
here pointed to, and a troubled Rpirit is declared to be the accept- 
able hacrifice Ullto G"d." (T riull. ad7:. Jwl. c. vo)] 
5 A UGI:Sn
E.-" ChriHtiano; do Htill celebrate the '1ì m(Jry of the 
bacrifice then madp, in the holy offering and participation of the 
B ,d) and .Bloud of Chribt." (Au9. Cúnt. Faustum, 1. 20, co lB.) 
G [It appears evident that \\ h
n they call the Eucharint a 
sacrifice, the) have re
ard only to the .piritual Jerrir offered in 
it, and not to any tlt/lt r..ll ohlationo It i!o, called a 1 ure all I un- 
Uf.Jf.Jdy sacrifice (raBapåv rai åvuíparTov BVC7íuv) in the A.po51o- 
}i(.al Con"tituti')ß<4.] 



Of the Jlarriage of Priests. 
Bishops, Priests, and l)eacons are not commanded by 
God's Law, either to YOW the estate of single life, 01 
to abstain from marriaQ"e : therefore it is lawful for them. 
as for all other Chri;tian nlen, to n1arn at their ow
discretion as they shall judge the same w to sen.e better 
to godlineç:s. 

De Conjllgio Sacerdofll11l. 
Episcopis, presbyteris, et diaconis nuUo mandato 
divino pra'ceptum est, ut ant ccdibattll11 ,-o\-eant aut 
a Inatrimonio abstineant. Licet igitur etian1 illis, tIt 
 Olnnibus Christianis ubi ho'ë ad pÍetatL>u1 11lagi
hlcere jl1dicayerint, pro suo arbitratu matrimoniulTI con- 

What is thl"\ histor
. of this ...\.rticlo 11 \rhat arc 
the t,yO ab;:;ertions in the first c}au
e? ''"""hat is the 
difference between these as:::-ertion
 2 ? To ,vhich 
of then} does the la5t claus(' of the ...\rticle refer. 
What orders of the Christian luini
tryare n}cntioned 
in this ...\niclü S? I
 there any pa5
agc in 3crip- 
turc which forbid
 the luarriap:e of the Priesthood? 
To "hol11 "as the Priesthood confÌn0d undl"\r the 
Jewish dispcllsation 4? '\11at followed frolH hellcc$? 

1 The firs.t paragraph only was published in the rf'ign of Edward 
YI.; tIll... condlldil1
 p:\r:1gr:lph "as adltt.>d in tlll'rt'ign of EliLabNh. 
2 The TiNt nH.':ms that the der
\" are not bound at the time uf 
their ordinntinl1 to enter into a 501(.;1111 cn
('mellt ll')t to marry; 
fCQlld. that they fire not hound to nbst:1in frullllllarriage with- 
out such '0". 
3 Bi
. Pri('
ts, find Ðe3l'l)llS; in \\ hidl there is a tacit re- 
jectiou of the minur orùcr::- of the Homish Church. 
4 '1'0 the desct.>udnnt... of one particular fnmil
$ The Iligh priest \\ a
 obliged to lUarr



1Vas Simon Pcter a Inarried IHan? llow does 
this appear? (
Iatt. viii. ] 4.) 'Vho ,vas Philip? 
\Vas he a luarrieù luan? (Acts xxi. 8, 9.) Repeat 
1 Cor. ix. 5. \Vhat is Incant by a 
ister in that 
passage 1 ? What dircction does St. Paul giye in 
this respect, with rcfercnce to the choice of a 
bishop? (1 Tin1. iii. 2.) Is the sallIC direction 
given ,vith rcgard to elders or priests? (Titus i. 6.) 
'Vith regard to deacons? (1 'rim. iii. 12.) 'Vho 
,vas Aquila? "\V a
 he l1utrried? (L\.ctS xyiii. 2.) 
"\Vhat is nIcntiol1ed by St. Paul as one of the cha- 
 of the aposta
y of the latter tillles? (1 TÏ1n. 
iv-. 3.) \Vhat is the scope of the advice given by 
St. Paul in 1 Cor. vii. 2 ? 
lIas any Church the power of laying do\yn regu- 
lations on such a subject as this 3? Is it expedient 
to exercise this po\ver 4 ? 
E'ì'idence fro1n Antiquity.-Did the practice of 
the Prin1Ìtivc Church correspond \vith the state- 
111ent of this Article 5 ? What causc appcars to 
have given progress to the principle of celibacy ð? 
What did the Council of Nice (A. D. 32.5) detern1Îne 

1 A Christian woman, f s opposed to a heathen. 
2 Its tendency is to show that unùer the existing circumstances 
of the Church at that time, marriage was 110t desirable; but there 
is no prohibition. 
3 There can be no question that the Church, as a Society, has 
a right to demand such things from her ministers. 
4 Certainl)' not; if regarù be had to the spread of religion and 
,} The early Fathers ad vocated the lawfulness of marriage against 
the Encratites, the l\Iontanists, and the Novatialls. 
6 The spread of .Jloìlacltism, and the popular veneration for 
excessive austc..rities. 



on this question 11 "\Vhen ,vas the principle fairly 
established 1 


Of excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided. 
That person \"hich by open denunciation of the 
Church is rightly cut off from the unity of the Church, 
and excommunicated, ought to be taken of the whole 
multitude of the faithful, as an Heathen and Pub1ican, 
until he be openly reconciled by penances and received 
into the Church by a Judge that hath authority there- 

De excommllnicatis vitandis. 

Qui per pubJicam EccJesiæ denunciationeln rite ab 
unitate Ecc1esiæ præcisus est et excommunicatus, is ab 
universa fidelium multitudine (donec per pænitentiam 
publice reconciliatus fuerit arbitrio judicis competentis) 
habendus est tanquam ethnicus et publicanus. 

"\Vhat is the subject of this Article 21 \Vhat is 
nleant by excomnlunication 3 ? "\Vhat does this 
..A..rticle assunle 41 \Vhat is nleant by the expres- 
sion "rightly" cut oft'S? "\Vho are meant by the 

1 It was proposed at that Council to forbid the marriage of the 
clergy altogether; this, however, was opposed by Paphnutius, and 
it was finally enacted that all who had been married before they 
took orders should retain their wives, but that they should not 
marry a second time. Celibacy, however, still Jained ground, 
being encouraged by the Popes, and was at last established by 
Gregory VI I., A.D. 1085. 
2 The trEatment of excommunicate persons. 
3 Separation from outward communion with the Visible Church. 
· That the Church has the right to excommuuicate her members. 

 According to due order of the Church. 



,vhole lnultitude of the faithful I ? I-Io,v are they 
to regard the exconullunicate person? 1Vhat is to 
be understood by this 2 ? Is the excon1n1unication 
to be final? What is llleant b.y. penance 3 ? 
By "yhat general reasoning ,vould you conclude 
that the Church has the right. of exconllnunica- 
ting 4? Ha
 this principle been generallyackno,v- 
ledged in the ,yorld:;? Does it appear that the 
Jewish Church had this po,ver 6 ? Rel)cat l\Iatt. 
xyiii. L5-17. 'Vas this a private or a public 
"Tong? 'Vhat then ,vould you infer fron1 hence 
,vith regard to public ,vrongs? Repeat l\Ia
t. xyiii. 
] 8. \Vhat does this passage in1ply 7? Does it 
appear fron1 Scripture that the right of CXC0111n1U- 
nicating ,vas adluitted after the Church was firn1ly 
cstablished? Repeat 1 Cor. Y. 1-5. IIo,v ,yas 
the incestuous person to he punished 8? By ,vhose 

1 The whole Christian society; all the members of Christ's 
Holy Catholic Church. 
2 He is not to be regarded as a brother Christian. 'rhe brother- 
hood of nature would stiH remain; the brotherhood of grace is 
3 Repentance and contrition, together with the punishment 
assigned by the Church. 
· The nature of the Church as a societJr. It is necessary to the 
well-béing of a society that it should have the power of expelling 
its mcmbers. 
:; Exclusion from sacred rites was practised even amongst the 
heathen, and was con
idered as a severe punishment. 
6 'J.1he Jewish Church appears always to have ltad this power 
both in the time of Moses, and in that of our Saviour. (See 
Exodus xii. 19. Lev. vii. 20. John ix. 34, &c.) 
7 Thc words relate primaril.1J to the directions given in the 
preceding verses; and they imply tbat whateyer the Apostles might 
determine and appoint respecting such an offender, whether as to 
his e.rpulsion or re-admission, would be ratified in heaven. 
8 He was to be deli
ered orcr to Satan, or cxcolltlllUlÛcated. 



authority was this punishnlent inflicted? 1Vhat 
,vas its object? (1 Cor. v
 5, last claltse.) Is there 
any account of the restoration of this offender? 
(2 Cor. ii. 6, 7.) Call ,ye infer any thing fronl 
this exalnple ,vith regard to the t'ì'eatlnent of the 
offender 1 ? 'Vhat other exalllples are there of ex- 
conlll1unication in the New Testanlent 2 ? 
Does it appear that excomlnunication was gene- 
rally practised in the times succeeding the Apostles 3 ? 
"\Vhat ,yas its nature' ? What ,vas the rule of the 
early Church ,yith regard to the treatment of such 
persons:; ? How. ,vas the po,ver of exconllllunica- 
tion gradually extended 6? What ,vas the result 7? 
1Vas the right of excommunicating according to the 
practice of the prinlitivc Church, generally ad- 
mitted at the Refonnation 8? "\Vhat other declara- 
tions besides that of this Article show that it is 

1 He was not to be consirlered past redemption; but during the 
time of his excommunication all familiar intercourse with him 
was to be suspended. 
2 1 Cor. xvi. 22. ) Tim. i. H1,20. 2 John 10, 11, &c. 
3 The early ecclesiastical writers speak constantly of the rules 
and customs of the Church with regard to excommunication and 
4 There were two kinds of excommunication, the minor and the 
or. By the former the offenùer was expelled from the Eucha- 
rist; b}' the latter he was expelled frum all communion. 
S All familiar intercourse was suspended for the time, but the 
person was not deprived of hiE natural or civil rights. 
6 The civil power was hrought in to enforce it. and it was used 
by the Popes as an engine to advance their temporal purposes. 
7 It became weal..ened by its very extension, and indirectlJ 
helped fur ward the Reformation, by confirming Henr}' VIII. and 
Elizabeth in their alienation from the Pal)al See. 
8 :Most of the reformed Churches asserted this power. 



an ackno,vledged principle of the Church of Eng- 
land 1 ? 
'Vhat '",as the fornl of excomnlunication, as set 
forth in the Convocation of 1571 2 ? "\Vhat ap- 
pears to have been one l1lain cause of the neglect 
into w.hich excommunication has fallen 3 ? What 
,,"ould be the renledy f? 


Of the Traditions of the Church. 
It is not necessary that Traditions and Ceremonies 
be in an places one, and utterly like; for at all times 
they have been divers, and may be changed according 
to the diversities of countries, tinles, and men's man- 
ners, so that nothing be ordained against God's 'V ord. 
'Vhosoever through his private judgment, willingly 
and purposely, doth openly break the traditions and 

1 The 85th Canon directs that the Churchwardens are to see 
that excolllmunicated persons be kept out of the Church. The 65th 
directs that such persons shall be declared excommunicate every 
six months ensuing, (until their restoration,) in the parish church 
as well as in the cathedral, where they remain. See also the 
rubric at the beginning of the office for the burial of the dead, &c. 
2 After stating the nature of the offence, it proceeds-" I would 
that JOu should lmow that our Bishop, in the name and by the 
authority of ...\lmighty God, has cut him wholly off from commu- 
nion with the Church of God. and separated him as a dead mem- 
ber from Christ's body. This is his present state; this is his 
soul's great danger. St. Paul, admonished by the Holy Ghost, 
orders us to a void such men's company and intercourse, lest we 
be partakers of their Rin. Yet, as Christian charity warns us, since 
he will not pray for himself, nor understand his danger, let us all 
pray God in his name, that he ma}' at length discover the miserJ" 
and defúrmity of his life, may do penitence, and be converted to 
God; our God is merciful, and can recall the fallen even from 
death." (JVilkillS'S Conctlia, voJ. iv. p. 268.) 
3 The circumstance of its having been employed as a temporal 
· The ell tire removal of its civil penalties. 



ceremonies of the Churcll, which be not repugnant to the 
,y ord of God, and be ordained and approved by common 
authority, ought to be rebuked openly, (that others 
may fear to do the like,) as he that oflèndeth against the 
common order of the Church, and hurteth the autho- 
rity of the l\Iagistrate, and woundeth the consciences 
of the weak brethren. 
Every particular or national Church hath authority 
to ordain, change, and abolish, ceremonies or rites of 
the Church ordained only by l11an's authority, so that 
all things be done to edifying. 
De traditionibus Ecclesiasticis. 
Traditiones atque cæremonias easdem, non omnino 
necessariuIll est esse ubi que, aut prorsus consimiles. 
NaIll ut variæ senlper fuerunt, et mutari possunt pro 
regionum, temporum, et morum diversitate, modo nihil 
contra verbum Dei instituatur. 
Traditiones, et cæremonias ecclesiasticas, quæ cum 
verbo Dei non pugnant, et sunt auctoritate publica in- 
stitntæ atque probatæ, quisquis privato consilio volens, 
et data opera, publice violaverit, is ut qui peccat in 
publicum ordinem Ecclesiæ, quique lædit auctoritaten1 
l\lagistratus, et qui infirnlorUlu fratrnm conscientias 
vulllerat, publice, ut cæteri timeant, arguendus est. 
Quælibet Ecclesia particularis, sive national is, auc- 
toritatem habet instituendi, mutandi, aut abrogandi cæ- 
remonias, aut ritus ecc1esiasticos, humana tantum auc- 
toritate institutos, modo omnia ad ædificationem fiant. 
'Vhat is the subject of this Article? 'Vhat is 
the original meaning of the ,vord Tradition I? 1Vhat 
are the traditions here spoken of2? "\Vhat is the 
essential difference between traditions of doctrines, 
and traditions of cerenlonies 3 ? "\Vh.1t is asserted 

1 See Article V I. page 24, note 7. 
2 Traditions of Ceremonies, Order, and Church Government. 
3 Tratlitions of doctrine must be expressly containeJ in the "r ord 
of God, or else manifestl
. collected out of it; traditions of cere- 
H 2 



\vith regard to such traditions as are spoken of in 
this Article? 'Vhat is the limitation \vith reo'ard 
to the ordaining of such traditions? 
"\Vhat are the three assertion
 of this Article I? 
IIo\v does the necessity of traditions and 
ccrelnollies appear 2 ? For exanlple: "\Vhat is the 
substance or essential part of the 8acranlent of 
Baptisnl? "\Vhat of the Eucharist? "\V ould the 
nlere URe of these essentials be sufficient to 
the decent adn1Ïnistration of these Sacr
IIaye the e::;sentials ahvays been the saIne? IIave 
the attendant cereIllonies varied 3 ? To illustrate 
this point. Speech is necessary amongst all nlen. 
Does it therefore follo,,- that all nlen nlust speak 
the S
Llne language? Traditions and cerelllonies are 
necessary. Docs it therefore follo\y that the Sâme 
certain fornl nlust prevail eyery where? IIave 
such traditions and cerenlonies always been divers? 
"\Vhat circunlstances have caused traditions to 
vary? For cxanlple. Ho\v have the diversitie
of countries affected the mode of baptizing 4? IIo,v 
monies nut so; the former must not bé recei\?ed unless there is 
something in 
cripture for them; the latter are free, if nothing 
can be alleged against them from Scripture. 
1 ]. rrhat traditiuns and ceremonies need not be in all places 
the same.-2. That those who wilfull)" break such traditions as are 
lawfull.v ordained should he rebuked openly.-3. That ever)" parti- 
cular Church has authlJrity to ordain, change, or abolish such 
2 Man)" circumstances are required for the performance of those 
things which God has required in his \V 01'<.1, which are not detailed 
in Scripture, and without which such things could not be per- 
formed, such as the time and the place, &c. 
3 They have always varied, as is evident from the ancient 
i In a cold climate sprinkling would be resorted to rather than 



have the diversities of times affected the 1/lode of 
celebrating public worship I? HO"T have the diver- 
sities of 1nën's ma.nners affected the 'iJ
ode of cele- 
brating tlte Eucharist 2 ? 
What is the second assertion of this Article? 
Supposing every individual ,vas left to the free 
exercise of his private judgment, in opposition to 
the decisions of the Church, what must fol1ow 3? 
On what three grounds ought those who break HIe 
traditions of the Church to be rebuked 4 ? 'Yhy is 
a person who breaks the Ia'ys of a civil society to 
be punished 5 ? 'Vhat directions has an ills!)ired 
Apost1e given with regard to the ext.ernal regin1en 
of the Church? (1 Cor. xiv. 40.) "\Vhose la,\T then 
does a person break, ,vho offends against the COID- 
n10n order of the Church 1 IIo,v does such a 
person hurt the authority of the magistrate 6 ? 
How does he ,vound the consciences of weak bre- 
thren 7? Is such an action a sin against God? 
(1 Cor. viii. 12.) 
"\Vhat is the third assertion of this Article? What 

1 It is no longer necessary to assemble the people to serve God 
in close and secret meetings. 
2 The kiss of peace is no longer given, being unsuited to the 
manners of the time and countrv. 
3 All uniformity of worship 
,.ould at once be destroyed, and 
the vcr.y existence of the Church, as a visible society, would be 
4 See the Article. 
S Because he offends against the common order of that society, 
and weakens the ties by which it is held together. 
6 By disobedience; for the magistrate, as is his duty, protects 
the Church in the maintenance of its order and discipline. 
7 He shocks them; or he lessens their regard for religious mat- 
ters altogether, or he encourages them to a similar disobedience. 
H 3 



is to be understood by this assertion I? IIo,v does it 
appear t11at each particular Church has this po,vcr 2 ? 
Evidence frorn Antiq1tity.-Does it appear tJlat 
in the early ages of Christianity the traditions and 
ceremonies in differcnt Churches were divers 3 ? 
Sho,v this from the ,vritings of Irenæus 4. Of St. 
Augustine 5. 

1 That traditions and ceremonies need not be changed by the 
whule body of Christian men, but that each particular 
ociety has 
this puwer. 
2 The Church Catholic is made up of many Churc
les, indepen- 
dent of each other, though buund together by the same faith. 
Therefore it is evident that with respect to matters of discipline, 
which Christ has neither commanded DOl' forbidden, each parti- 
culm" Church may use its own liberty. 
3 In the early ages each particular Church ordajned and varied 
at its pleasure its own rites and ceremonies. The rituals of differ- 
ent Churches were different in the times immeJiately succeeding 
the Apostles. 
t IRENÆus gives an account of the dispute between Polycarp 
and Anicetus concerning the observation of BasteI', in the following 
words :-" St. Polycarp being at Rome with Anicetus, and they 
baving had some little controversy with each other about other 
things, presently composed the difference, and showed themselves 
also to be no lovers of strife on that particular head; for neither 
coulcl Anicetus persuade Polycarp to desist from observing Easter 
according as he had alwaJs observed it with St. John, the disciple 
of our Lord, and with the rest of the Apostles with whom he had 
been conversant; nor could Polycarp persuade Anicetus to observe 
it otherwise than as he said it was his duty to do, according 
to the custom of the elders who were before him. rfhis being the 
case between thcm, they, notwithstanding, communicated with 
each other." (lrellæus, Fragm. Epist. ad Vict01'. p. 340. Ben. Ed.) 
6 AUGUSTIXE.-Bllt otlwr things which are chHllged, according 
to the several places and regions of the earth; as fer example, that 
some fast on the Sabbath-day, others do not, some partake daily 
of the Body and Blood of the Lord, others 011 certain days, &c., 
and the like kind of things, has a free observation; neither is there 
aI1Y better discipline in these things to a grave and prudent Chris- 
tian, than to do as he sef'S the Chllrcll to do, unto v:hiclt he shall 
cltance to come; for whatsoever is enjoined, neither contrary to 
faith nor good manners, is indifferently to be accounted of, and 
to be observed and kept for their Society amongst whom he lives. 
(Aug. Ep. ad .Tan. I, cap. 2.) 

Of the Homilies. 
The second Book of Homilies, the several titles 
whereof we have joined under this Article, doth con- 
tain a godly and wholesome Doctrine, and necessary 
for these times, as doth the former book of HOlnilies, 
which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth; 
and therefore we judge them to be read in Churches by 
Iinisters, diligently and distinctly, that they may 
be under8tanded of the people. 
Of the Names of the Homilies. 
1. Of the right Use of the Church. 
2. Against peril of Idolatry. 
3. Of repairin,9 and keeping clean of Churches. 
4. Of Good TVorks: first of Fasting. 
5. Against Gluttony and Drunkenness. 
6. Against Excess of Apparel. 
7. Of P'rayer. 
8. Of the Place and Time of Prayer. 
9. That Common Prayers and Sacraments ought to 
be ministered in a known tongu.e. 
10. Of the reverend estimation of God's Word. 
11. Of Alms-doing. 
12. Of the lVativity of Christ. 
13. Of the Passion of Christ. 
14. Of the Resurrection of Christ. 
15. Of the worthy receiving of the Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood of Christ. 
16. Of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. 
17. For the Rogation-days. 
18. Of the State of lJfatrimony. 
19. Of Repentance. 
20. Against Idleness. 
21. Against Rebellion. 
De Homiliis. 
Tomus secundus Homiliarum, quarun1 singulos titulos 
huic Articulo subj un},.imus, continet piam et salutarem 
doctrinam, et his temporibus necessariam, non minus 
H 4 



qUaITI prior totTIUS Homiliartnn, quæ editæ sunt tCln- 
pore Edvardi Sexti. Itaque eas in Ecclesiis per nlinistros 
diligenter et dare, ut a populo intelligi possint, reci- 
tandas esse judicavimus. 

'Vhat is the Ineaning of the ,vord Homily 1 ? 
When ,vas the first book of Homilies puLlished 2 ? 
What are thè IIon1Ïlies included in this Book 3 ? 
'Vhen ,vas the second. Book published 4? By,vholn 
are these IIoluilies supposed to -have been pre- 
pared:;? "\Vhat is affirnled in this Article with 
reference to the doctrine contained in the IIonlÌ- 
lies? "\Vhat is to be understood by doctrine in 
this passage 6? IIo'v far nlay persons ,vha sub- 
scribe to the Articles be expected to give their 

1 It is derived from the Greek word óJLI.>"'ía, "familiar inter- 
course," and means, therefore, "a plain familiar discourse or 

J In 1547. 
3 The Article only enumerates the Homilies in the second 
Book ; the following are those in the first :- 
(I). A fruitful Exhortation to the Reading of Holy Scrip- 
(2.) Of the Misery of all IVlankind. 
(3.) Of the Sah ation of all Mankind. 
(4.) Of the true and lively Faith. 
(5.) Of Good 'V orks. 
(6.) Of Christian Loye and CharitJ. 
(7.) A
ainst Swearing and PerjurJ. 
(8.) Of the Declining from God. 
(9.) An Exhortatiun against the fear of Death. 
(10.) An Exhortation to Obedience. 
(J 1.) Against \Vhoredom and Adultery. 
(12.) Against Strife and Contention. 
4 In lfiGO. 
:; Some of those in the first bool
, bJ' Cranmer, and those in the 
second, by Jewell. 
6 Teaclâng, different from doctrine in the theological sense. 



asscnt to the HOlnilies 1 1 "\Vhat is the authority 
referred to in the words, ",ve judge theln 2 f' 
"\Vhere are they appointed to be read? 'Vhat ap- 
pears to hn,ye given cause for the preparation of 
these HOll1ilies 3? SonlO persons haye held that 
nothing ought to be publicly read ill Churches, ex- 
cept the IIoIy Scriptures; by ,vhat reasoning has 
it been attcnlptcd to defend this opinion .? How 
does the weakness of this argunlent appear 5 ? 
Evidence j
'om Ant-iq'uity.-Does it. appear that 
in the Primitive Church any writings were read 
besides Canonical Scripture 6 ? 'Vhat is the testi- 
nlony of J eronle 7 ? Of Eusebius 8 ? 
1 They may assent to the general nature and tendencJ of the 
teaching contained in them, without being committed to an appro- 
val of every sentence. 
2 The CUh'tocatton, by whose authoritJ,the Articles were passed. 
3 The riolence of some preachers, and the ignormlce of others 
were one cause, and tlte preTailing arol'S and abuses were another. 
<I On the ground that under the Law nothing was pt.rmitted 
to be brought into the temple but what had been sanctified. 
5 If this argument were admitted, it would follow that every 
thing in the Church is unholy which is not precisely instituted by 
Christ; moreover, the objection would apply still more strongl,)' to 
e.1])ositton and }JloeacTtlJlg; and :yet we know that exposition of Scrip- 
ture was usual in the s
6 It has been shown that the ApocrJphal Books were read, and 
it also appears that the Shepherd of Hennas, and the Epistles of 
Clement and Polycarp were so read. 
7 JERO}IE.-" Hennas, of whom the Apostle Paul, writing to 
the Romans, makes mentioll, saying, Salute As
'ncritus, Phlegon, 
Hermas, &c. ; they sa
', he (Hermas) was the author of the Look 
which is caned the Pa
tor, and in SüIne Churches of Greece it is 
read publicly." (Jerome, yo1. ii. p. 831.) Jerome also says that 
" PolJcarp wrote to the Philippians a very useful epistle, which to 
this day is read in the Asian assemblies." (p. 843.) 
8 ECSEBII:'S says of the Epistle of Clemens Romanus-" It is a 
great and admirable one. which he wrote from the Church of 
the Romans to that of the Corinthians, there heing a sedition 
then at Corinth; and this Epistle we know to l)e read publicly in 
most of the Churches, both long ago, and also in our time." 
(Euseb. Hist. lib. iii. c. 16.) 
H 5. 

] 5-t 


Of Consecration of Bislwps and ftfinisters. 
The Book of Consecration of Archbishops and Bishops, 
and Ordering of Priests and Deacons, lately set forth 
in the time of Edward the Sixth, and confirmed at the 
same time by authority of Parliament, doth contain all 
things n<'cessary to such Consecration and Ordering: 
neither hath it any thing, that of itself is superstitious 
and ungodly. And therefore whosoever are consecrated 
or ordered according to the Rites of that Book, since 
the second year of the forenanled King Edward unto 
this time, or hereafter shall be consecrated or ordered 
according to the same Hites; we decree all such to be 
rightIy, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and ordered. 

De Episcoporunl ef .Jfinisfrorum Consecratione. 
Libel1us de consecratione Archiepiscoporum, et Epi- 
scoporum, et de ordinatione Presbyterorum et Diaco- 
norum, editus nuper temporibus Edvardi V'I., et 
auctoritate Parliamenti illis ipsis temporibus confirma- 
tus, omnia ad ejusmodi consecrationem et ordinationem 
necessaria continet, et nihil habet, quod ex se sit, aut 
superstitiosum aut impiulll; itaque quicunque juxta 
ritus illius libri consecrati aut ordinati sunt, ab anno 
secundo prædicti regis Edvardi, usque ad hoc tempus, 
aut in posterum juxta eosdem ritus consecrabuntur, aut 
ordinabuntur, rite atque ordine, atque legitime statui- 
Inus esse et fore consecratos et ordinatos. 

What does thi
 \xticle state ,vith regard to the 
Book of Consecration of l\Iinistcrs, set forth in the 
tinle of Ed ward 'TI.l? 1Vhat is the Latin vcrsion 
of the ,vord "ungodly?" 1Vhat 'were the circunl- 

1 First, that it contains all things necessary to such consecration; 
and secondly, that it contains nothing superstitious and ungodly. 



stances ,vhich occasioned the 2nd paragraph of this 
rticle I? 'Vhat is the nleaning of the expression 
" set forth," as di:-:tinguished frolll " confinned ?" 
'Vhat is the first assertion of this Article ,vith 
reo'ard to the Book of Consecration? Ho,v docs 
the truth of this assertion appear 2? 'Vhat is the 
second assertion of this Article? 'Vhat objection 
has been urged against the f01"111 of Consecration 
used in the Church of England 3? In what 
are the ,\yords, " Receive the Holy Ghost," used 4 ? 
When our Lord appointed his Apostles to go into 
the world and teach all nations, ,yhat did He add? 
(John xx. 22.) Does it appear that the gifts of 
the Holy Ghost which the Apostles then received 
,vere n1Ïraculous 5? "\Vhen did they receive the 

1 There was a new form of ordinations agreed upon bJ the 
Bishops in the third year of King Edward ; and when the Book of 
Common Prayer was confirmed by Act of Parliament two years 
after, this form of ordination was included. In Queenl\Ial',y's reign 
this Act was repealed; and the Book of Common Pra
'er and the 
Book of Ordination were by name condemned. \Vhen Queen Eli, 
zabeth came to the throne, King Edward's Prayer Book was again 
authorized, but the Book of Ordination was not then expressl)" 
named. It was then contended by Bishop Bonner, that since this 
book had been by name cltnd.enmed in Queen Mary's Act, but had 
not been b)" name received in Queen EJizabeth's, it was therefore 
still condemned. in law, and hence that an ordiliatiolls according 
to that form were illegal and invalid. It was to meet that objec- 
tion that this paragraph was inserted in the Article. 
2 \Ye have no particular account of the 10rms b)p which Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons were admitted to their several Orders in the 
Xew Testament, except that it was done bJ Imposition of Hands 
and Prayer, both ",hid} our forms contain. 
3 The words of the Bi
hop to the person about to be ordered, 
" Receive the Holy Ghost." 
-1 Rec
ive tlte gift of the Holy Ghost-i. e. such power as the 
Spirit of Christ has endowed his Church with. 
5 No; because they Were the subject of a promise to be fulfilled 
afterwards; namely, on the da
' of Pentecost. 
H 6 



n1Ïraculous gifts? (Luke xxiv. 49.) "\Vhat then 
appears to have been the nature of the gift ,yhich 
they rccciycd when the Lord breathed upon thelll 1 ? 
Is the same authority still given to Christ's :\Iinis- 
ters 2 ? Should then the ,vords ,,
hich convey that 
authority be ohjected to ? 
'Yhat question is asked of the candidate before 
his ordination åb to his inward calling 3 ? Ho,v docs 
it appear that the secret and sensible testinlony of 
God's Spirit in tIlc 
oul is not 'necessarily required 
to this in,vard calling 4 1 By ,,
hat ordinary means 
may a candidate satisfy hinl
elf upon this point 5 ? 
Evidence fro'J1
 Antiquity. - Consecration of 
Bishops.-\Vhat .was the decree of the Council of 
Nîce ,vith regard to the consecration of Bishops 6? 
"\Vhen w'as the fourth Council of Carthage con- 

1 Authority relating to the administration of their office, as is 
evident from the words which follow in J Ohll xx. 23. 
2 Yes; because of his promise that He will be with them 
always, e"en to the end of the world. 
3 See Article XXIII. 
4 Because, were this necessar)', an 
tnsallctified man could not be 
rightly called, which would be a false conclusion, as we know by 
the case of Judas. (See Article XXVI.) 
5 If in a sober moment he htis reaSOll to trust that he has com- 
petent knowledge and abilities, and a real purpose in his heart 
with God's grace, "to serve God for the promoting of his glory, 
and the edIfying of his people ;" he may by this mealls satisfy 
himself that he is properly called to the ministl,),. 
6 "J t is most proper that a Bishop should be constituted by all 
the Bishops of the Province; but if this be difficult on account of 
some urgent neces:;ity, or the length of the way, that at aU events 
hould meet together at the same place; those who are 
absent also giving their suffrages, and their consent in writing, 
and then the ordination be performed. The confirming, however, 
of what is done in each Province belongs to the 
letropolitan of it." 
(Canon iv.) 



vened I? \Vhat was the decree of that Council on 
this subject 2? Show. the agreement of these regu- 
lations with the Ordinal of the Church of England. 
Ordering of Priests.- What is the date of the 
Apostolical Canons 3 ? What directions do they 
contain with reference to the Ordering of Priests
"\Vhat is the decree of the 4th Council of Carthage 
on this su1jcct 5 ? Do these ancient practices 
accord with the regulations of the Church of Eng- 
land ? 
Ordering of Deacons.- "\Vhat reason is given in 
the Canons of the 4th Council of Carthage why 
the Bishop only should lay his hands on the head 
of the Deacon 6 ? 

1 A. D. 399. 
2 "'Vhen a Bishop is ordained, let two Bishops hold the Book 
of the Gospels over his head, and one pouring forth the Lle
upon him, let the other Bishops that are present touch his head 
"ith their hands, or put their hands on his head." (Concil. Car- 
tltag. 4. can. 2.) 
3 It is probable that they were collected in their present form 
about the middle of the third century, though many of the Canons 
themselves were enacted at a much earlier period. 
4, "Let a Presb;yter, Deacon, and the rest of the Clergy be 
ordained by one Bishop." (Canon II.) 
S "'Yhen a Priest is ordained, the Bishop blessing him, and 
holding his hand upon his head, let aU the Priests also, which are 
prescnt, hold their hands by the hand of the Bishop upon his 
head." (Concil. rartlw!l' 4. can. 3.) 
6 ., 'Vhen a Deacon is ordained, let the Bishop only that blesseth 
l)Îm put his hand upon his head, because he is not ordained to 
the Priesthood, but only to the ministry." (Concil. Cart/wg. 4. 
can. 4.) 



Of thp Civil JJ[agistrates. 
The Queen's ]\Iajesty h3th the chief power in this 
Realm of England, and other her Dominions, unto 
whom the chief Government of all Estates of this 
Realm, whetIIer they be Ecclesiastical or Civil, in all 
causes doth apRertain, and is not, nor ought to be, 
subject to any foreign Jurisdiction. 
,V here we attribute to the Queen's 
lajesty the chief 
govenllnent, hy which Titles we understand the 111inds 
of some slanderous folks to be offended; we give nôt 
to our Princes the ministering either of God's "
or of the Sacraments, the which thing the Injunctions 
also lately set forth by Elizabeth our Queen do nlost 
plainly testify; but that only prerogative, which we 
see to have been given always to all godly Princes in 
holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, that they 
should rule all estates and degrees committed to their 
charge by God, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Tem- 
poral, and restrain with the civil sword the stubborn 
and evil-doers. 
The Bishop of Rome hath no jurisdiction in this 
Reahn of England. 
The laws of the Reahn Inay pnnish Christian men 
with death for heinous and grievous offences. 
It is lawful for Christian men, at the command111ent of 
Iagistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars. 
De civilibus JJI agistratibus. 
Regia l\Iajestas in hoc Angliæ regno, ac cæteris ejus 
dominiis, SUm111am habet potestatem, ad quam omnium 
statuum hujus regni, sive illi Ecclesiastici sint, sive Civi- 
les, in omnibus causis, suprema gubernatio pertinet, 
et nulli externæ jurisdictioni est subjecta, nec esse debet. 
Cunl Regiæ l\Iajestati sunlmam gubernationenl tri- 
buÌ1nus, quibus titulis intelligimus animos quorunda111 
calumniatorurn offendi, non danlus Regibus nostris, aut 
verbi Dei aut SacramentorU111 administrationem, quod 
etiml1 Injunctiones ab Elizabetha Regina nostra, nuper 
editæ, apertissime testantur; sed earn tan turn præ- 



rogativanl, quam in Sacris Scripturis a Deo ipso, omni- 
bus piis Principibus, videmus semper fuisse attributam ; 
hoc est, ut omnes status at que ordines fidei sure a Deo 
conunissos, sive illi Ecclesiastici sint, sive Civiles, in 
officio contineant, et contumaces ac delinquentes gladio 
civili coerceant. 
Romanus pontifex nuBam habet jurisdictionem in hoc 
regno Ang]iæ. 
Leges regni possunt Christianos, propter capitalia 
et gravia crimina, morte punire. 
Christianis licet, ex mandato l\Iagistratus, arma por- 
tare, et justa bell a administrare. 

Ho\v does this Article differ from that published 
in 1552 I? What appears to have been t.he reason 
for the alterations made in ] 562 2 ? \Vhat differ- 
ence is there between the present circumstances of 
this country, and those of the time when these Ar- 
ticles ,yere originally passed 3? 1Vho are Ineant bJ 
the "slanderous folks" spoken of in the second para- 
graph 4 ? "\Vhat are the Injunctions here referred to 5 ? 

1 The Article published in 1552 was much shorter. Instead of 
the first paragraph were the words, "The King of England is 
Supreme Head in (,3rtl1, next under Christ, of the Church of Eng- 
land and Ireland." 1'hen followed the paragraph against the 
Pope's jurisdiction, as it now stands, with the addition of the 
words, "The Civil Magistrate is ordained and allowed of God; 
wherefore we must obey him, not only for fear of punishment, but 
also for conscience sake." 
2 .A prejudice had arisen in the minds of many of the people 
against the term lJead, as applied to the kingl)! power, and this 
prejudice wa!:) encuuraged Loth by the Puritans and the Papists. 
It was therefore thought expedient to define more particularl)" the 
l1ature and limits of the civil authority. 
3 At that time there was a power in this country not subject to 
the supreme government of the realm. . 
4 The Puritans, who denied the right of the Civil1\Iagistrate to 
interfere in any ecclesiastical matters. 
5 Those published in IJ59, soon after Queen Elizabeth came 
to the throne. They state that the Queen had no intention to 
challenge any other authority, than to have under God the sove- 
reignty and rule over all persons and causes ecclesiastical, so as 



There are t1n'ce propositions in this Article- 
(1.) That the Queen's 
[ajesty has the chief 
power and goyennnent in this country. 
(2.) That the Bishop of Rome has no jurisdic- 
tion in this country. 
(3.) The nature and nlcasures of thc Civil po,yer 
and gOYCrlllllent are stated. 
The SlljJre1nacy of the Civil P01i'er.- Is the 
suprenlacy of the civil po\ver recognized in the 
Old Testanlcnt 1 ? \Vhat prccept of our Saviour 
shows that the sanle supren1acy is ackno,vleùged 
in the K ew' Te
hullent? (Luke xx. 23.) 1Vhat 
directions does Bt. Paul give in this lnatter? 
(Rolnans xiii. 1.) St. Peter? (1 Peter ii. ] 3-14.) 
1Vas the Civil po,ver Christian or heathen at that 
tinle? 1Vhat do you infer 2 ? 
1Vhat ib the second proposition of this .A.rticle? 
On w.hat ground has the Church of ROlHe attenlptcd 
to assert a jurisdiction over this reahn 3 ? Is the 
Church of Ronle really the n10t11cr of all the 
 1 It has been said that England ,vas 
converted to the faith by the Church of ROllle. Is 

no other foreign power should, or ought to have, any superiority 
over them. 
1 Yes, throughout; although we might llave supposed it other- 
wise, from the circl1m
tance of the Jewish polity having heen a 
theocracy. 'V. e find in Exodus xxxii. 22, that Aaron is in subjec- 
tion to Moses; and after tbe kingly power wa" established, David, 
Asa, J ehoshaphat, J osias, and others, are represented as making 
la \\'s for matters of religion, the affairs of the temple, and the ser- 
vice of God, and issuing orders and directions to the 
linisters of 
the Church for the better performance of their duties. 
2 See page 84, note 2. 
3 On the ground that she is the mother of all the Churches, and 
that the Bishop of Rome is the Universal Bishop. 

 Certainly not; if any Church might Jay claim to such a title, 
it would rather be Jerusalem. 



this })roposition strictly true 1 ? "\Vhen did the 
Bishop of ROlne nrst acquir
 à jurisdiction in this 
countrv 2? "\Vhat causes contributed to advance 
the papal supren1acy fron1 this tin1e 3? On what 
grounds ,vas Henry VIII. justine.d in withdrawing 
hinlself fronl that jurisdiction 4 ? 
"\Vhat are the nature and n1easures of the royal 
supren1acy, as defined in this Article 5 ? Suppose 
a State .where the Civil power is heathen; ,vhat is 
the relation of Church and State in such a COln- 

1 There can be no question that this C'ountry was under great 
obligations to the Church of Rome for the mission of Augustine, 
at the end of the sixth century; but it is equaJIy cel'tain that 
Christianity had been introduced amongst the Britons at a much 
earlier period; perhaps by St. Paul himself; for Clement of Rome 
SRJS that he preached righteousness to the whole world. coming 
even to the utmost bounds of the west (f7t"ì rò rÉpp.a rijr; ÒV(1'EWr;); 
and Tertullian speaks of" Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, 
Christo vel'O subdita;" but, at all events, there was a flourishing 
Church in the island at the end of the third century. Upon the 
Saxon invasion, however, A. D. 450, Christianity was driven into 
corners, though not entirely swept away; for upon the arrival of 
Augustine, we read of a conference taking place between him and 
the British Bishops whom he found in the island, as to the time 
of observing Easter, &c. [The nort.hern and western portions of 
the island were greatly indebted to the preaching of holy men 
from Scotland and Ireland, amongst whom may be particularly 
mentioned the eminent and exemplary AIDAN.] 
2 From the time of the mission of Augustine, the foundation of 
this supremacy began to be laid; but it could not he said to be 
acquired till the eleventh century, upon the accession of 'Villiam 
the Conqueror, who gained the throne by the sword, and was glad 
to avail himself of the power of the Pope to establish him in his 
3 The vices or weaknesses, or deficiency of title of the English 
4 On the ground that it was an usurpation. 
5 '1'hat the Queen has an authority or power to command, even 
in matters of Christian Religion, and that there is no higher or 
greater above her in those things in which she is appointed to rule. 
But this supremacy by no means implies the power of performing 
any sacred function in the Church. 



n1unity 1 ? 'Vhat is the nature of the relation 
,vhere the Bishop of Rome is supreme 2? IIo,v 
docs the cOlnmonwealth of England differ froln the 
forn1er of tlles("\ bvo States 3 1 II ow' fron1 tIle 
 With what ancient polity doe
 this con- 
stitution agreeS? 'Vhat po,ver had Uzziah? "\Vhat 
power did he llsurp? (2 Chron. xxvi. 16.) IIo,v 
,vas he l)unished for so doing? (verse 19-21.) 
What powcr ,ya,s 'giyen to St. Peter 6 ? Show' that 
the po,ycr of the s,vorù was forbidden hinl. ()Iatt. 
xxvi. fi2.) 
 hag the lneasure of the Royal supremacy 
been cXl1ressed by King James 7? 
Punishrnent of Death.- What does this Article 
affifln with regard to the punishment of death? 
(Repeat Genesis ix. 6.) Wha.t reason is given for 
this injunction 1 (verse 6, last clause.) Does this 

1 They are two independC'nt Societies. 
2 The Church and the State are then onp Society; but the 
Bishop of Rome divides that Society boY not suffering the Church 
to depend upun the Civil .Magistrate; and he debars the subjects 
from giving an undivided allegiance to their lawful sovereign. 
J The Church and the State with us are one Society. 
4 The Church is in subjection tu the Civil power, which it is not 
where the Bishop of Rome is supreme. 
5 That of the Jews. 
6 The power of the ke)'s, which means the POWCl" of e
Chnrch discipline. 
r King James says that the I\:ing.s supremacy implies a power 
" to command obedience to be given to the 'V ord of God, by re- 
 religion according to His prescribed will, by assistin
spiritual power with his temporal sword, by reformation of corrup- 
tion, by procuring due obedience to the Church, hy judging and 
 oft' all frivolous que
tions and 8chisms, as CUllstantine did; 
amI finally. by making decorum to be ubserved in all indifferent 
things for that purpose, which is the unly intent of the oath of 
supremacy." (I
'illg James's Apology.) 



reason ahvays ren1ain 1 What do you infer ? Was 
the punishnlent of death extended to other offences 
besides lllurder, under the l\Iosaic dispensation 1 ? 
Do \VO find any prohibition of this sanction in the 
N e,v Testanlent? "\Vhat dops St. Paul declare with 
regard to the power of the civil magistrate? (Ro- 
mans xiii. 4.) 'Vhat is Dleant by the sword 2 ? 
Ho,v does St. Paul adn1it the sanle principle in 
Acts xxv. l].? For what objects does the ciyil 
po\ver punish 3 ? 'Vhich of these is sacrificed in 
the punishDlent of death? 
Lawfulness of "fVar.- What is the assertion 
in the last paragraph of this Article? By \vhom 
\vere this and the former assertion denied at the 
tinle of the Reformation 4 ? 
Was ,val' sanctioned in the Old Testanlent 5 ? 
Do we find any prohibition of it in the New? 
'Vhat advice did John the Baptist give to the sol- 
diers who came to hin1 for Baptism? (Luke iii. 14.) 
Ho,v did the centurion, who besought Christ to 
heal his servant, describe himself? (
[att. viii. 9.) 
Does it appear that he renounced his profession of 
a soldier, when he embraced Christianity? 'Vhat 
,vas the character of Cornelius? (Acts x. 2.) Did 

1 See Dent. xvii. 5. Exod. xxi. 15-17, &.c. 
2 The sword is always considered as the instrument of death, 
and "bearing the sword" is an expression equivalent with 
" having the power of life and death." 
3 The civil power does not punish with the design of giving an 
offender his deserts; but,first, for his reformation, and, secondly, 
for the protection of society. 
4 By the Anabaptists. 
5 The Jews were frequently engaged in war, and that by the 
command of God himself. (Kum. xxxi. 2,3. Josh. yiii. 21, &c.) 



St. Peter nrge hinl to forsake his calling upon his 
conversion? n
'" what exalnple did St. Paul ex- 
hort Till10thy to diligence in his calling? (2 Tin1. 
ii. 4.) But thoug'h it tInts appears that "'"ar is 
justifiable, is it not to be deprecated? "\Vhat 
ould Le the re
ult, if the principlcs of Christianity 
gained thcir pròper influence in the ,vorld] ? 
Evidence frorn .A ntiquity.- What is the testi- 
1l101lY of Socrates, the Ecclesiastical historian, as 
to the royal suprclllacy in prill1Îtive tinlcs 2? What 
is the conlnlent of St. Chrysostonl on Romans 
xiii. 1. 3? 'Vho ùoes 
t. Basil say are llleant by 
the higher pow"ers ' ? 
1Vhat is the testinlony of Cyprian against the 
supreillacy of the Bi::;hop of Ronle 5? IIow is t11e 

I There would then be no more war. 
2 "\\? e often comprehend kin
s in our history, because that 
from the time they began to be Christians, the business of the 
Church, or ecclesiastical causes, depended on them." (Soc1"at. 
prúæ1n. ad 1. 5. Rist. Eccles.) 
3 "The Apostle showinfl' how he commands this to all, both 
Priests and Monks, and ]
ot only to secular persons, he makes it 
clear from the first worù:5, saying, , Let every soul,' &c., though 
he be an Apostle, though he be an Evangelist, though he be a 
Prophet, or whosoever he be." (Clu..lJsost. in Rom. Horn. 23.) 
4 BASIL.-" Paul the Apostle writing to the Roman:5, commands 
that they he suhject to all powers that have the pre-eminence, to 
secular not spiritual powors, anù this he manifests by what he adds, 
spcakinl! of tribute and custom." (Basil. Ct.Jnstit. monast. c. 22. init.) 
ii CYPR[AN.-" .Nor hath any of us set himself up fill' a Bishop 
of Bishops, or by an)" tyrallni
al terror hath driven his colleagues 
into a necessity oÍ suhmitting themselves to him; since every 
Bishop is at liberty to use his power ac('orùil1
 to his discretion, 
and is neither to judge nor to be jurlW.d h
. another. But let us 
all look fur the jud
ment of our Lord Jesus Christ, who alone hath 
the power both of 
Î.d \'ancing us to the government of his Church, 
and of judging us for what we do in the exercise of our office." 
(C!Jp1.ian ill Coucil. Cartlwg.) 



lawfulness of inflicting the IHlnishn1ent of death 
for heinous offences attested by St. Augustine 1 ? 
Did the prilnitive Christians serve in ,val' under 
heathen en1perors 2 ? How does Augustine de- 
oldiers3 ? 


Of Christian men's Goods, which are not common. 
The Riches and Goods of Christians are not common, 
as touching the right, title, and possession of the 
same, as certain Anabaptists do falsely boast. N ot- 
withstanding, every nlan ought of such things as he 
possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according 
to his ability. 

De illicita Bonorum communicatione. 

Facultates et bona Christianorum non sunt com- 
111unia, quoaù jus et possessionem, ut quidam Anabap- 
tistæ jactant; debet tamen quisque de his quæ possidet, 
pro facultatum ratione, pauperibus eleemosynas benigne 

Against what error is the first paragraph of 
this Article directed? By whom was this error 

I ACGUSTIXE.-" He is no murderer who oweth his service to 
him who commandeth, as a sword is a help to him that useth it ; 
and therefore they do not at all transgress against this command 
whereby it is said, , Thou shalt do no murder,' who, God being the 
author, serve in war, or representing the per<;;Oll of the public 
power, do according to his laws, that is, according to the command 
ùf the most just reason, punish the wicked with death." (Aug. de 
Cirit. Dei, 1. i. c. 22.) 
2 TERTL'LLBN expressly intimates that they did so. (Apol. c. 22.) 
3 AL'GUSTINE.-He calls them" non homicidas, sed ministros 
legis-salutis publicæ defensores." (Aug. cont. Faust. 22. 74.) 



n1aintained 1 1 \Vhat is the assertion of tIle last 
paragra ph 2 ? 
1Vhat precepts of the Old Testament are at 
yariancc' "with the opinion condenlned in this Arti- 
cle 3? llepeat )[att. Y. 42. What does this precept 
ilnply' ? When our Saviour conllnended his 
mother, the V lrgin :\I a ry, to the care of John, 
here did that disciple take her 1 (John xix. 27, 
last clause.) \Vhat are ".e to infer fronl hence? 
1Vhat other precepts of the :N e\\T TestalHent sho\v 
tllat Christian 111en's goods are not C0l11nl0n 1 
(ROlli. xii. 13. 11eb. xiii. 16, &.Jc.) Itepeat 1 TinI. 
Y. 8. Could thi::; as:sertion consist with the notion 
of a cOllllllunity of goods? 
R,cpcat ::\Iark x. il. 'Vhy do you infer that this 
precept is not of universal obligation 5.? Repeat 
Acts ii. 44-45. \Vhy do you conclude that this 
practice ,yas not intendeù to be of universal obli- 
gation 6 ? Ho\v far does this interconllnunit
r of 
goods appear to have prevailed 7? \Vhat circum- 
stances renùered it expedient at that tilHe ? 

1 By the Anahaptists. 
:! The first paragraph condemns the notion of a community of 
goods, the second asserts the duty of charity. 
3 The eighth and the tenth commandments. 
4 1 t implies jJoss{'ssion in the person to whom it is addressed. 
5 Because it was addressed to a particular individual, who, it 
appears, was covetous, and to whom therefore it became a test of 
6 We must not separate one part of the text from the other; if 
the whole practice of the early Christians is to be followed out in 
this particular, it would make it llecessar)" for" all to be together." 
7 It was'roluntary, (Acts v. 4.) limited in operation, (Acts i
. 36. 
Acts xi. 29, &c.) and caused by the peculiar circulllstances of the 
Church in Jerusalem. 



The (llity of almsgiving.- What is the meaning 
of the \vords righteo'Us and 'righteousness, as fre- 
quently used in the Old Testament I? By w.hat 
argunlellt fronl the Old Testanlent does St. Paul 
exhort the Corinthians to liberality? (2 Cor. ix. 9.) 
For \vhat reasons is alnlsgiving a necessary duty 2 ? 
What w"as it that reconlmended COlilelius to the 
Divine favour? (Acts x. 4.) What apostolical pre- 
cept recognizes a constant perfonnance of this 
 (1 Cor. xvi. 2.) Ho\v is the san\e thing 
recognized by our own Church 3 ? 
Evidence front A ntiquity.- \Vhat precept of 
Clenlent of Ronle shows that the idea of a general 
comnlunity of goods \vas not entertained in his 
time 4 ? 'Vhat is the testinlony of Justin )IartJr 
on this point 5 ? 

1 The word 'righteous often means bount
flll; and 1"i:]ltteousness 
means liberality or almsgiring. It is used in this sense ill Psalm 
cxii. 6, as is evident by a comparison of that verse with verses 
5 and 9. (See .Jlede, Disc. xxii.) 
2 It is thanksgiving in the act, acknowledging God to be the Lord 
and Gi,"er of all ; it reminds us of our l\1aker (Luke xii. 33-34) ; 
and it gi\"es us a claim, through Christ, to mercy at the last day. 
()Iatt. xxv. 34, &c.) . 
3 The Church does not consider her service as complete without 
the offering up of alms to God, as is evident from the Offertory. 
T.-" Let him that is strong not despise him that is 
weak, and let him that is weak reverence him that is strong; 
let the rich contribute to the poor, and the poor give thanks to 
God." (Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Corinth.) 
5 J USTIX MARTYR.-" Those of us that have much, and are 
willing, according to every man's pleasure, giv
 and contribute 
as much as themselves will ; and that which is gathered is given 
to the President (Tcjj 'iT'pOfO'TWTL), and he helps orphans and 
widows with it, and those that are in want by reason of sickness, 
or any other cause, and those that are in bonds, and strangers 
that come a great.way ; and, in brief, he takes care of all that are 
in necessit.y." (Justin .J.1Iartyr, Apol. 1. 67.) 



Of a Christian man's Oath. 
As we confess that vain and rash Swearing is for- 
hidden Christian Hlen by our Lord J esns Christ, and 
James his Apostle; so we judge, that Christian Religion 
doth not prohibit: but that a man may swear when the 
l\Iagistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, 
so it be done according to the Prophet's teaching, in 
justice, judgment, and truth. 

De Jurejurando. 
Quemadmodum juramentuln vanunl et temerarium a 
Domino nostro Jesu Christo, et Apostolo ejus Jacobo, 
Christianis hominibus interdictum esse fatenlur; ita Chris- 
tianOrLll11 religioneln Ininime prohibere censemus, quin 
jubente l\Iagistratu in causa fidei et charitatis jurare 
liceat, lTIodo id fiat juxta prophetæ doctrinmn, in 
justitia, in judicio, et veri tate. 

"\Vhat kindof s,vcaring does this.A.rticle condenul? 
"\Vhat docs it allo,y? "\Vhat are here n1eant by 
":Glith and charity 1 ?" "\Vhat is the Prophet's 
teaching here referred to? (J ere iv. 2.) "\Vhat sects 
1)ayc held that all oaths are unla,vfu1 2 ? 
"\Vhat is an oath 3? "\Vhat precepts of Scripture 
forbid yain and rash swearing? (Exod. xx. 7; 
:Jlatt. v. :34, &c.; ,Tall1eS Y. 1

1 Faith here means simpl)' the business of estaht:shing the 
credit of any thing; and charity includes any good and Christian 
2 The .Anabaptists at the time when the Articles were drawn up, 
and the Quakers now. 
3 An appeal to God to be witness to what you are saying. 



Does it appear from the Old Testament that 
oaths ,vere allowed in causes of faith and charity I? 
Is the same thing sanctioned in the New 1 Repeat 
l\Iark viii. 12. 'Vhat is the Greek version of the 
,vords "there shall be no sign, &c. 2 ?,' Did our Lord 
objeet to take the oath when it was administered to 
HiIn in the palace of the high priest 3? 1Vhat 
instances do the Epistles furnish us with, of solemn 
appeals nlade to God? (Ronl. i. 9; 2 Cor. xi. 31 ; 
Gal. i. 20, &c.) 
"\Vhat kind of s,vearing does our Lord condenln 
in Matt. v. 344? Repeat J alnes v. 12. 1Vhat is 
lnean t by the ex pression "any other oath 5 ?" 
What three directions does the Prophet give 
with regard to the taking of an oath G? In ,vhat 
fonn of ,vords is the oath adnlinistered in our 
Courts of Justice 7 1 
Evidence from A ntiquity.-Sho" fronl St. 
Cyril of Alexandria, that a Christian nlan's oath 

1 See Genesis xxi. 23; xxvi. 28; Lev. v. 1, &c. 
2 Ei ÒOe
tjETat ufJJ1.fiov, &c., which was the regular form of 
an oath. See l\Iatthew xxvi. 63, 64. 
3 The words Thou hast said were the Eastel'n mode of affirma- 
4 Vam and rash swearing in common conversation, as is e'\'ident 
from the context. 
5 Any other oath of that kind, such as those just enumerated. 
6 It must be taken in truth, so as not to swear falsely; in judg- 
rn..ent, so as not to swear ignorantly; and in righteousness, so as not 
to swear unjustly. 
f The witness pledges himself to speak the truth, the v:hole truth, 
and nothing but the truth. 

] 70 


is pern1Ìtted 1. 
St. Augustine 2. 

Sho,y the same thing frolll 

1 CYRIL.-" Let JeR and nay, amongst those that have chosen to 
lead the best life, have the use and force of an oath, and let things 
be so confirmed; but if yea and nay be despised by any, let the use 
of oaths be at last tutned or directed to that which is greater than 
us, yea and every creature, viz. the Deity." (Cyril. Alex. de 
AdoT(lt. 1. 6.) 
:I AUGUSTINE.-" Though it be said we shall not swear, 
'et I do 
not remember it is any where read that we should not receive or 
take an oath from one another." (Aug. Ep. ad Pub. 47.2.) 


This Book of Articles before rehearsed, 1S again 
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the Rea 1m, by the assent a nd consent of uur Svrereign 
Lady ELIZABETH, by the grace of God, of England, 
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1Vhiclt Articles ?/'ere deliberately rpad, and confirmed 
again by the sllbscript"on of the hands of the Archbishops 
and Bishops of the (, and by the Subscription 
of the whole Clergy of the Nether-house in their COIl1.'O- 
cativn, in the Yea). of our Lord 15il. 



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1. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity 
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:J4. Of the Traditions of the Church 
35. Of the IIomilies 
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